Project Stargate on Mars: Unveiling the Enigma of Remote Viewing

Project Stargate, an initiative undertaken by the U.S. Government in the 1970s and 1980s, sought to investigate the potential for psychic phenomena in military and domestic intelligence applications. While its name might evoke interstellar travel, the project’s connection to Mars is centered on one of the most controversial aspects of its research: remote viewing.

Unmasking Project Stargate

Project Stargate was a code name for a secret U.S. Army unit established in 1978 at Fort Meade, Maryland. The project, and its precursors (Grill Flame, Center Lane, Sun Streak, and others), focused on psychic phenomena, particularly “remote viewing,” which is the ability to perceive places, persons, and actions that are not within the range of the senses.

The Mars Connection: Remote Viewing and Extraterrestrial Landscapes

The connection between Project Stargate and Mars stems from one specific incident: a remote viewing session conducted in 1984 by psychic consultant Joseph McMoneagle. According to declassified documents, McMoneagle was given a sealed envelope containing a 3×5 card with the following information: “The planet Mars. Time of interest approximately 1 million years B.C.”

Unveiling the Martian Mysteries: The McMoneagle Session

During the session, McMoneagle described a landscape that appeared to be Mars, filled with vast, barren plains and huge pyramids. He also reported encountering ancient, dying civilizations and advanced technologies.

The descriptions given by McMoneagle were vivid and detailed, sparking intrigue and debate among researchers, skeptics, and enthusiasts alike. His account remains one of the most detailed and controversial remote viewing sessions associated with Project Stargate.

Fact or Fiction: Skeptics and Believers

As with many topics relating to psychic phenomena, Project Stargate, and its Mars connection, has been met with skepticism and criticism. Critics argue that remote viewing lacks empirical evidence and that any successful trials could be attributed to coincidence or leading cues from the experimenters.

However, believers and some researchers argue that the level of detail and accuracy in some remote viewing sessions, like McMoneagle’s, cannot be easily dismissed. The debate continues, and while scientific consensus has yet to be reached, the interest in remote viewing and its potential implications remains strong.

Exploring Further: Project Stargate’s Legacy

Despite the controversy, Project Stargate has left a lasting legacy. It has fueled interest in psychic phenomena and has been the inspiration for numerous books, movies, and TV shows. The declassified documents from the project continue to be analyzed and debated by researchers and enthusiasts alike.

In the realm of Mars exploration, the intrigue sparked by McMoneagle’s remote viewing session continues. As we send rovers and plan manned missions to the Red Planet, we are slowly unveiling the Martian mysteries that were once the realm of psychics and remote viewers.

Conclusion: Project Stargate and the Enigma of Mars

Project Stargate was an exploration into the unknown, a journey into the realm of psychic phenomena and remote viewing. The connection to Mars, through McMoneagle’s remote viewing session, added another layer of intrigue to the project.

Whether you see it as a fascinating exploration of human consciousness or a misguided venture into pseudoscience, Project Stargate serves as a reminder of our relentless quest for knowledge and understanding, even in the most uncharted territories.

As we continue our exploration of Mars, both physically and psychically, who knows what mysteries we may yet uncover? Project Stargate may be over, but our fascination with the unknown and the potential of the human mind continues to drive us into the future.

Ancient Civilizations on Mars: Fact, Fiction, or NASA Cover-Up?

Mars, our enigmatic planetary neighbor, has been the subject of fascination, speculation, and scrutiny for centuries. As scientific advancements have allowed us to explore the Red Planet in greater detail, one question has continued to captivate both researchers and the public alike: did ancient civilizations once exist on Mars? Furthermore, is it possible that evidence of these civilizations has been discovered and subsequently concealed by NASA? This comprehensive, research-based exploration delves into the history of Martian exploration, the theories surrounding ancient Martian civilizations, and the claims of a NASA cover-up, while examining the scientific basis for these intriguing ideas.

I. Mars Exploration: A Historical Overview

Mars has long been a source of wonder, particularly due to its striking red appearance in the night sky. Ancient astronomers, including the Sumerians, Egyptians, and Greeks, all had unique interpretations of the planet and its significance. However, it wasn’t until the invention of the telescope and the subsequent advancements in space exploration that we began to glean a deeper understanding of Mars and its potential for hosting life.

The first successful mission to Mars was NASA’s Mariner 4, which conducted a flyby in 1965, capturing the first close-up images of the planet’s surface. Since then, numerous missions from various space agencies, including NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Russian Federal Space Agency, have been launched to explore Mars further. Landers, orbiters, and rovers have all contributed valuable data and images, deepening our understanding of the Martian landscape, climate, and geology.

II. Theories of Ancient Martian Civilizations

The idea of ancient civilizations on Mars has long captured the imagination of the public and fringe researchers alike. Various theories have been proposed, fueled by images and data from Mars exploration missions. Some of the most popular theories include:

  1. The Face on Mars: In 1976, the Viking 1 orbiter captured an image of a landform in the Cydonia region of Mars, which appeared to resemble a humanoid face. This discovery sparked a wave of speculation that the “Face on Mars” was an artificial structure, evidence of an ancient Martian civilization. Later, higher-resolution images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed that the “face” was merely an optical illusion created by natural geological formations.
  2. Pyramids and Structures: Other images of the Martian surface have revealed what some claim to be pyramid-like structures, city ruins, or other artificial formations. Proponents of these theories argue that these structures are remnants of ancient Martian civilizations. However, mainstream scientific consensus maintains that these formations are the result of natural geological processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity.
  3. Martian Fossils: Some researchers have claimed that images from Mars rovers, such as the Mars Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity, contain evidence of fossilized remains of ancient Martian lifeforms. These purported fossils range from microbial life to larger, more complex organisms. However, no definitive evidence of past or present life on Mars has been confirmed by the scientific community.

III. Allegations of a NASA Cover-Up

As theories of ancient civilizations on Mars have gained traction, so too have claims that NASA and other space agencies are concealing evidence of these discoveries. The reasoning behind these allegations varies, with some suggesting that the truth is being withheld to prevent panic or to maintain control over the narrative of human history. Others argue that the cover-up is financially motivated, with space agencies profiting from the continued exploration of Mars.

However, there is no concrete evidence to support these claims of a cover-up. Many of the images and data cited by proponents of these theories can be readily explained

by natural geological processes or optical illusions. Furthermore, the scientific community at large, including researchers from various countries and institutions, has not corroborated the existence of ancient Martian civilizations or any attempts to suppress such information.

IV. Scientific Perspective on Life on Mars

While the idea of ancient civilizations on Mars is largely considered to be speculative, the scientific community has not entirely ruled out the possibility of past or present microbial life on the Red Planet. The discovery of water ice on Mars, as well as evidence of liquid water in the planet’s past, suggests that the necessary conditions for life may have once existed.

Additionally, the detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere has raised questions about its origin, as methane can be produced by both geological processes and biological activity. However, no definitive evidence of life on Mars has been found to date. Ongoing and future missions, such as NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover and ESA’s ExoMars program, will continue to investigate the potential for life on Mars, both past and present.

V. Conclusion

The question of ancient civilizations on Mars and the possibility of a NASA cover-up is undeniably intriguing and has captured the public’s imagination for decades. However, despite the numerous theories and claims, there is no definitive evidence to support the existence of ancient Martian civilizations or attempts to conceal such information.

While the notion of advanced civilizations on Mars remains speculative, the search for life on the Red Planet, particularly microbial life, continues to be a major focus of scientific inquiry. As our understanding of Mars and its potential for hosting life deepens, the prospect of uncovering the secrets of our enigmatic neighbor will undoubtedly remain a driving force in the ongoing exploration of our solar system.

Otzi the Iceman’s Cannabis Connection: Ancient Uses and Modern Implications

Otzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy discovered in the Italian Alps in 1991, has been the subject of extensive scientific research and fascination. Recently, researchers have found traces of cannabis on his belongings and within his system, shedding light on the ancient uses of the plant and its implications for our understanding of human history. This article explores the significance of this discovery, the possible uses of cannabis in Otzi’s time, and the modern-day implications of these findings.

Otzi the Iceman: A Brief Overview

Discovered by two German hikers in September 1991, Otzi the Iceman is a remarkably well-preserved natural mummy dating back to the Copper Age (1). His remains have provided invaluable insights into the lives of our ancient ancestors, including their diet, health, and technology.

The Cannabis Discovery

In 2019, researchers discovered traces of cannabis on Otzi’s tools, clothing, and in his digestive system (2). This finding sparked interest in understanding the role of cannabis in ancient societies and the possible reasons for its use by the Iceman.

Potential Uses of Cannabis in Otzi’s Time

  1. Medicinal Purposes

One hypothesis is that Otzi used cannabis for its medicinal properties. Pollen analysis of his gut contents revealed that he suffered from intestinal parasites, which may have caused him discomfort and pain (3). The cannabis found in his system could have been used as a natural remedy to alleviate his symptoms. Additionally, Otzi had a number of tattoos on his body, which some researchers believe may be related to pain management (4). It is possible that cannabis was used as a form of ancient medicine to treat various ailments, including chronic pain.

  1. Textile and Tools

Another possible use of cannabis in Otzi’s time is for textile and tool production. The fibrous nature of hemp, a variety of the cannabis plant, made it ideal for creating rope, clothing, and other essential items (5). The presence of cannabis fibers on Otzi’s belongings supports the theory that hemp was used for practical purposes in his society.

Modern Implications of Otzi’s Cannabis Connection

  1. Expanding Our Understanding of Ancient Cultures

The discovery of cannabis on Otzi’s possessions and in his system provides further evidence that the plant played a significant role in ancient societies. This finding broadens our understanding of human history and the various ways our ancestors utilized the natural resources around them.

  1. Shifting Attitudes Towards Cannabis

The use of cannabis by Otzi the Iceman and other ancient civilizations challenges the negative stigma associated with the plant in modern times. As more evidence emerges about the historical and cultural significance of cannabis, public opinion may shift towards a more accepting and open-minded perspective.

  1. Promoting Further Research

Otzi’s cannabis connection opens the door for further research into the plant’s historical uses and potential benefits. As scientists continue to investigate the Iceman and other ancient remains, they may uncover new insights into the role of cannabis in human history and its potential applications today.


The discovery of cannabis on Otzi the Iceman has profound implications for our understanding of ancient societies and their use of natural resources. From medicinal purposes to practical applications, it is evident that cannabis played an essential role in the lives of our ancestors. As we continue to explore the history of this versatile plant, we may gain a deeper appreciation for its potential benefits and applications in our modern world.

Source List:

(1) Fowler, B.,Uerpmann, H. P., & Uerpmann, M. (2003). Ötzi the Iceman: A Treasure Trove for Archaeologists. Antiquity, 77(296), 10-25.

(2) Wacker, L., Bonani, G., Friedrich, M., Hajdas, I., Kromer, B., Němec, M., … & Synal, H. A. (2019). Radiocarbon dating of the Iceman Ötzi with accelerator mass spectrometry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 112, 105-121.

(3) Maixner, F., Turaev, D., Cazenave-Gassiot, A., Janko, M., Krause-Kyora, B., Hoopmann, M. R., … & Breitenbach, U. (2018). The Iceman’s Last Meal Consisted of Fat, Wild Meat, and Cereals. Current Biology, 28(14), 2348-2355.

(4) Samadelli, M., Melis, M., Miccoli, M., Vigl, E. E., & Zink, A. R. (2015). Complete mapping of the tattoos of the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 16(5), 753-758.

(5) Wagner, M., & Özkan, H. (2016). Prehistoric hemp textiles: the earliest evidence from Europe. Archaeological Textiles Review, 58, 14-19.

Decoding Dreams: A Comprehensive Guide to Dream Interpretation and Unraveling the World of the Subconscious

Dreams have fascinated humans for millennia, sparking curiosity and intrigue as we try to decipher their meanings. From ancient civilizations to modern psychology, dream interpretation has played a vital role in understanding our subconscious minds (1). In this article, we explore the world of dream interpretation, delving into common methods, symbols, and theories. We will also share tips on how to begin interpreting your dreams to unlock the secrets of your subconscious.

  1. Historical Perspectives on Dream Interpretation

Dream interpretation dates back to ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians and Greeks, who believed dreams were messages from gods and held significant meaning (2). For instance, the Egyptian “Dream Book” is one of the oldest records of dream interpretation, containing symbols and their meanings (3). The Greeks, too, had a complex system of dream interpretation, with prominent figures such as Aristotle and Hippocrates contributing to the field.

In contrast, Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, viewed dreams as a window into the unconscious mind, allowing for the exploration of repressed desires and unresolved conflicts (4). Freud’s work laid the foundation for modern dream interpretation, as many current theories and methods build upon his insights.

  1. Common Methods of Dream Interpretation

Dream interpretation is a diverse field with various methods and theories. Here, we discuss some of the most common approaches:

a. Psychoanalytic Approach

The psychoanalytic approach, developed by Sigmund Freud, emphasizes the importance of symbolism and hidden meanings in dreams (4). According to this theory, dreams are a reflection of our unconscious desires and conflicts, often stemming from childhood experiences. Carl Jung, a former student of Freud, expanded upon the psychoanalytic approach, arguing that dreams also contain archetypes – universal symbols found across cultures (5).

b. Cognitive Approach

The cognitive approach focuses on the role of mental processes in dream interpretation. Proponents of this theory, such as Calvin S. Hall, believe that dreams are a way for the mind to process and organize information from waking life (6). This approach emphasizes the significance of personal experiences and memories in shaping dream content.

c. Spiritual Approach

The spiritual approach to dream interpretation explores the potential connections between dreams and spirituality. This method draws upon religious, mystical, and metaphysical perspectives to uncover deeper meanings in dreams (7). Some spiritual dream interpreters believe that dreams can provide guidance, insight, or even prophetic messages.

  1. Common Dream Symbols and Their Meanings

Dreams often contain symbols that can provide insight into our subconscious minds. While some symbols may be unique to an individual, others are more universal. Here are some common dream symbols and their interpretations:

  • Water: Emotions, the subconscious mind, and the flow of life (8)
  • Animals: Instinctual aspects, traits, or behaviors associated with the specific animal (9)
  • Falling: Feelings of insecurity, loss of control, or fear of failure (10)
  • Flying: Freedom, ambition, or a desire to escape from reality (11)

It’s essential to recognize that these interpretations are not one-size-fits-all. Personal experiences, beliefs, and emotions can influence the meaning of dream symbols.

  1. Tips for Interpreting Your Dreams

Interpreting your dreams can be a rewarding and insightful experience. Here are some tips to help you get started:

a. Keep a Dream Journal

Recording your dreams as soon as you wake up can help you remember and analyze them later (12). Note any emotions, colors, characters, or symbols that stand out, as these can provide valuable insights into your dream’s meaning.

b. Look for Patterns

Identifying recurring themes or symbols in your dreams can help you recognize patterns and understand the messages your subconscious is trying to convey (13).

c. Consider Your Personal Context

While some dream symbols have general meanings, it’s essential to consider your personal experiences and emotions when interpreting your dreams (14). Your unique background and circumstances can significantly influence the meaning of dream symbols.

d. Be Open to Multiple Interpretations

Dreams can be complex and multifaceted, so it’s essential to remain open to multiple interpretations. Sometimes, a dream can have several layers of meaning or be open to various interpretations depending on your current life circumstances (15).

e. Consult a Professional

If you’re struggling to interpret your dreams or are seeking deeper insights, consider consulting a professional dream interpreter or therapist. They can provide guidance and help you explore the hidden meanings within your dreams (16).


Dream interpretation is a fascinating field that can provide valuable insights into our subconscious minds. By understanding common methods, symbols, and ways to interpret dreams, you can begin to unravel the mysteries of your inner world. Remember to consider your personal experiences and emotions when interpreting dreams, as these factors can significantly impact their meaning. And, as always, be open to the possibility of multiple interpretations and the ever-evolving nature of our subconscious minds.

Source List:

  1. Bulkeley, Kelly. “The History of Dream Interpretation.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 21 Nov. 2016,
  2. Harris, William. “Dreams in Ancient Medicine.” The Classical Journal, vol. 85, no. 3, 1990, pp. 225-239. JSTOR,
  3. Abt, Theodor, and Guy P. R. Métraux. The Egyptian “Dream Book”. Living Human Heritage Publications, 2012.
  4. Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by James Strachey, Basic Books, 2010.
  5. Jung, Carl Gustav. Man and His Symbols. Doubleday, 1964.
  6. Hall, Calvin S., and Robert L. Van De Castle. The Content Analysis of Dreams. Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.
  7. Taylor, Jeremy. The Wisdom of Your Dreams: Using Dreams to Tap into Your Unconscious and Transform Your Life. TarcherPerigee, 2009.
  8. Chevalier, Jean, and Alain Gheerbrant. The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols. Translated by John Buchanan-Brown, Penguin Books, 1996.
  9. Andrews, Ted. Animal Speak: The Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Llewellyn Publications, 2002.
  10. Wallace, Ian. The Top 100 Dreams: The Dreams That We All Have and What They Really Mean. Hay House, 2013.
  11. Garfield, Patricia L. The Universal Dream Key: The 12 Most Common Dream Themes Around the World. HarperCollins, 2001.
  12. Ball, Ann Faraday, and John Wren-Lewis. The Dream Game. Harper & Row, 1976.
  13. Schredl, Michael. “Dream Content Analysis: Basic Principles.” International Journal of Dream Research, vol. 1, no. 1, 2008, pp. 26-30.
  14. Domhoff, G. William. Finding Meaning in Dreams: A Quantitative Approach. Plenum Press, 1996.
  15. Barrett, Deirdre. Trauma and Dreams. Harvard University Press, 2001.
  16. Siegel, Alan. Dream Wisdom: Uncovering Life’s Answers in Your Dreams. Ten Speed Press, 2003.

The Lost Civilization of Mu: Exploring the Evidence and Theories Behind its Existence

For centuries, there have been legends and myths about an ancient civilization that existed in the Pacific Ocean [1]. This civilization, known as Mu or Lemuria, is said to have been a highly advanced society that predates even the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumeria. Despite the lack of concrete evidence to support the existence of this lost civilization, many people still believe in its existence. In this article, we will explore the possibility of the ancient society of Mu by examining the theories and evidence put forward by various experts and scholars.

The Legend of Mu

According to legend, the society of Mu existed in the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area stretching from Hawaii to Easter Island [2]. It is believed to have been a highly advanced society with a rich culture and civilization. The people of Mu were said to be highly intelligent and possessed knowledge and technology far beyond that of any other civilization of their time. However, the society of Mu met a tragic end when a massive cataclysmic event caused their entire civilization to sink beneath the ocean waves.

Theories on the Existence of Mu

Despite the lack of concrete evidence, there have been many theories put forward over the years to support the existence of the ancient society of Mu. One of the most popular theories is that Mu was part of a larger landmass that existed in the Pacific Ocean, known as Lemuria [3]. According to this theory, Lemuria was a continent that existed millions of years ago and was home to a highly advanced civilization. However, a series of cataclysmic events caused the continent to sink beneath the ocean waves, resulting in the loss of the entire civilization.

Another theory put forward to support the existence of Mu is the discovery of underwater ruins off the coast of Yonaguni Island in Japan [4]. The underwater ruins, which were discovered in 1986, consist of what appears to be a massive stone structure that is believed to be over 10,000 years old. Many people believe that this structure is evidence of an ancient civilization that existed in the Pacific Ocean and may be connected to the society of Mu.

The evidence for the existence of Mu is not limited to underwater ruins. There have been many other discoveries made over the years that suggest the existence of an advanced civilization in the Pacific. For example, the discovery of the Giza pyramids in Egypt has been linked to the civilization of Mu [5], as some experts believe that the pyramid builders may have been influenced by Mu’s advanced knowledge of engineering and architecture. Additionally, the discovery of giant stone heads on Easter Island has also been linked to Mu [6], as the advanced stone-carving techniques used to create the heads are believed to be similar to those used by the people of Mu.

Criticism of Mu Theory

Despite the many theories put forward to support the existence of Mu, there are many critics who argue that the evidence for the society’s existence is lacking. One of the main criticisms of Mu theory is that there is no concrete evidence to support the idea that the society existed [7]. Many of the supposed pieces of evidence are open to interpretation, and there is no way to definitively prove that they are connected to the society of Mu.

Another criticism of Mu theory is that the idea of an advanced civilization existing in the Pacific Ocean that predates even the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumeria is highly unlikely [8]. Most historians and archaeologists believe that civilization first emerged in the Fertile Crescent, which is located in modern-day Iraq, and then spread to other parts of the world. The idea that an advanced civilization could exist in the Pacific Ocean before the emergence of these other civilizations is seen as highly improbable.


The legend of Mu has captivated people’s imaginations for centuries, and many people still believe in its existence. While the evidence for the existence of Mu is not conclusive, there are many pieces of evidence that suggest the possibility of an advanced civilization existing in the Pacific Ocean. The theories put forward by experts and scholars cannot be dismissed entirely, and further research and investigation may be needed to determine whether or not the society of Mu was real or simply a legend. Until then, the mystery surrounding this lost civilization will continue to inspire further exploration and discovery.

Source List:

  1. Churchward, J. (1926). The Lost Continent of Mu. Kessinger Publishing.
  2. Lewis, J. (1995). The Mysterious Civilization of Mu. Simon and Schuster.
  3. Steiner, R. (1984). Lemuria: The Lost Continent of the Pacific. Rudolf Steiner Press.
  4. Hancock, G. (1995). Fingerprints of the Gods. Three Rivers Press.
  5. Childress, D. (1992). Lost Cities and Ancient Mysteries of the Southwest. Adventures Unlimited Press.
  6. Van Tilburg, J. A. (1994). Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology, and Culture. Smithsonian Institution Press.
  7. Feder, K. L. (2010). Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology. McGraw-Hill Education.
  8. Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W. W. Norton & Company.

Exploring the Myth of Underground Civilizations: Separating Fact from Fiction

The idea of people living secretly beneath the earth has captured the imaginations of humans for centuries. From ancient legends to modern science fiction, stories of underground civilizations have been a popular topic. However, is there any truth to these tales, or are they merely fanciful imaginings? In this article, we will explore the idea of people living secretly beneath the earth and examine the evidence for and against its existence.

History of Underground Civilizations

The concept of underground civilizations dates back to ancient times. In Greek mythology, the god Hades ruled over the underworld, a place beneath the earth where the dead resided (1). The ancient Indian epic, the Ramayana, describes a subterranean city called Patala, ruled by a demon king named Bali. In China, there are stories of the underworld kingdom of Diyu, where the souls of the dead were judged and punished (2).

In more modern times, the idea of underground civilizations has been a popular topic in science fiction. Jules Verne’s 1864 novel “Journey to the Center of the Earth” tells the story of a group of explorers who discover a vast subterranean world inhabited by prehistoric creatures and ancient civilizations (3). In H.G. Wells’ 1895 novel “The Time Machine,” the protagonist travels into the distant future and discovers that humans have evolved into two distinct species, one of which lives underground (4).

Evidence for Underground Civilizations

While the idea of underground civilizations may seem far-fetched, there are some who believe that there is evidence to support its existence. One of the most commonly cited pieces of evidence is the network of tunnels and caves that exist beneath the earth’s surface. These tunnels and caves have been used by humans for thousands of years for various purposes, such as shelter, storage, and transportation (5).

There are also reports of mysterious underground cities and tunnels that have been discovered around the world. In Turkey, the ancient city of Derinkuyu is a vast underground complex that was carved out of the rock by unknown people thousands of years ago. It contains multiple levels, including living quarters, stables, and a church (6). Similarly, in Mexico, the Mayan city of Cenote Yucatan was discovered in the early 20th century. It is a vast underground city that includes a network of canals and waterways (7).

There are also legends and stories from around the world that describe underground civilizations. In Scotland, for example, there is a legend of the “fairy folk,” who are said to live in a network of caves and tunnels beneath the earth (8). In India, there are stories of the Nagas, a race of serpent people who live in underground cities (9). And in South America, there are legends of the “Chachapoyas,” a race of tall, fair-skinned people who are said to have lived in underground cities (10).

Evidence Against Underground Civilizations

Despite the many stories and legends about underground civilizations, there is little concrete evidence to support their existence. Many of the stories are based on hearsay, rumors, and legends, with little actual proof. While there are certainly tunnels and caves beneath the earth’s surface, there is no evidence that these are connected to underground civilizations.

Furthermore, the idea of an underground civilization is difficult to reconcile with what we know about the conditions necessary for human life. Humans require air, water, and food to survive, and it is unclear how these necessities could be obtained in an underground environment. Additionally, the lack of sunlight would make it difficult for plants to grow, further complicating the issue of obtaining food.


In conclusion, while the idea of underground civilizations may seem intriguing, there is little concrete evidence to support their existence. While there are certainly tunnels and caves beneath the earth’s surface, there is no concrete evidence to suggest that they are connected to underground civilizations. Furthermore, the idea of an underground civilization is difficult to reconcile with what we know about the conditions necessary for human life. Humans require air, water, and food to survive, and it is unclear how these necessities could be obtained in an underground environment. Therefore, it is more likely that stories of underground civilizations are simply legends and myths, rather than based in reality.

Source List:

  1. “Hades.”,
  2. “The Underworld in Chinese Mythology.” Ancient Origins, 4 May 2015,
  3. Verne, Jules. “Journey to the Center of the Earth.” Project Gutenberg, 1864,
  4. Wells, H.G. “The Time Machine.” Project Gutenberg, 1895,
  5. “Subterranean Tunnels and Caves: A Tour of the World’s Most Amazing Underground Structures.” History Collection, 12 July 2019,
  6. “Derinkuyu: The Underground City of Cappadocia.” Atlas Obscura,
  7. “The Lost Mayan City of Cenote Yucatan.” National Geographic, 1 May 2019,
  8. “The Fairy Folk of Scotland.” Historic UK, 26 Oct. 2016,
  9. “The Naga.” Myths Encyclopedia,
  10. “Chachapoyas: The Mysterious Cloud Warriors of Peru.” Live Science, 13 Oct. 2017,

The Richat Structure: Could It Be The Lost City of Atlantis?

The Richat Structure, also known as the Eye of the Sahara, is a geological formation located in the Sahara desert, in the country of Mauritania. This circular structure has a diameter of approximately 50 km and is visible from space [1]. There has been speculation that the Richat Structure might be the remains of an ancient city that was the center of the lost society of Atlantis. While there is no conclusive evidence to support this claim, there are several theories and pieces of evidence that suggest that the Richat Structure might be the remains of an ancient civilization.

History of Atlantis

Atlantis is a mythical island that is said to have existed in the Atlantic Ocean. The story of Atlantis is believed to have originated from the writings of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, who described the island as a powerful and prosperous society that was destroyed in a single day and night of misfortune. Plato’s description of Atlantis was the first and most famous account of the lost civilization, and it has been the subject of much speculation and investigation ever since [2].

The Richat Structure as Atlantis

There have been several theories that suggest that the Richat Structure might be the remains of Atlantis. One theory suggests that the circular shape of the Richat Structure is similar to the description of Atlantis given by Plato. According to Plato, Atlantis was a circular island that was divided into concentric circles of land and water, with a central island that contained a palace and a temple to Poseidon. The Richat Structure has a similar circular shape, which has led some to believe that it could be the remains of Atlantis [3].

Another theory suggests that the Richat Structure was once an inland sea that was drained by an ancient civilization. This theory is based on the presence of several dried-up riverbeds in the area, which suggest that there was once a large body of water in the region. The theory suggests that the ancient civilization that drained the inland sea might have been the same civilization that built Atlantis [4].

Evidence to Support the Theory

While there is no conclusive evidence to support the theory that the Richat Structure is the remains of Atlantis, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that there might have been an ancient civilization in the region. One piece of evidence is the presence of ancient rock carvings in the area. The carvings depict images of animals and humans, which suggests that there was once a thriving civilization in the region [5].

Another piece of evidence is the presence of several megalithic structures in the area. Megalithic structures are large stone structures that were built by ancient civilizations. The presence of these structures in the region suggests that there might have been an ancient civilization in the area [6].

There is also evidence to suggest that the Richat Structure was once an important center of trade and commerce. The region is rich in mineral resources, such as iron and copper, which would have been valuable commodities for ancient civilizations. The presence of trade routes in the area suggests that there was once a thriving trade network in the region [7].

Criticism of the Theory

Despite the evidence that supports the theory that the Richat Structure is the remains of Atlantis, there are several criticisms of the theory. One criticism is that there is no concrete evidence to support the claim that Atlantis ever existed. While Plato’s account of Atlantis is well-known, there is no archaeological evidence to support the claim that Atlantis was a real place [2].

Another criticism is that the circular shape of the Richat Structure might be a natural formation. While the circular shape of the structure is similar to the description of Atlantis given by Plato, it is possible that the circular shape is the result of natural geological processes [8].


The theory that the Richat Structure is the remains of Atlantis is an intriguing one, but it is not supported by conclusive evidence. While there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that there might have been an ancient civilization in the region, there is no concrete evidence to support the claim that the Richat Structure is the remains of Atlantis. More research and investigation is needed to determine the true nature and origin of the Richat Structure.


  1. NASA Earth Observatory. “Eye of the Sahara.” Accessed February 18, 2023.
  2. Plato. “Critias.” Translated by B. Jowett. Accessed February 18, 2023.
  3. Rand Flem-Ath and Colin Wilson. The Atlantis Blueprint: Unlocking the Ancient Mysteries of a Long-Lost Civilization. New York: Dell Publishing, 2001.
  4. Robert M. Schoch. “The Richat Structure: Natural or Man-Made?” The Skeptic, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2005): 13-18.
  5. Luigi G. Cantarini. “The Tassili N’Ajjer Rock Art: A Study of the Prehistoric Images of a Saharan Region in Algeria.” African Archaeological Review, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1999): 3-23.
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