Project Blue Beam: Conspiracies and Controversies Surrounding a Global Deception

Project Blue Beam, a controversial and widely debated conspiracy theory, proposes that powerful organizations are planning to orchestrate a massive global deception, using advanced holographic technology to simulate extraterrestrial or divine events. This alleged plot is said to serve the purpose of establishing a new world order and further consolidating power in the hands of a select few. This comprehensive, research-based exploration delves into the origins of the Project Blue Beam conspiracy theory, its main tenets, and the evidence supporting or refuting these claims, while examining the implications of such a scheme on society and global politics.

I. Origins of the Project Blue Beam Conspiracy Theory

The Project Blue Beam conspiracy theory can be traced back to Serge Monast, a Canadian journalist and conspiracy theorist, who first publicized the concept in the early 1990s. Monast claimed that the project was a secret operation devised by NASA and the United Nations, with the ultimate goal of establishing a one-world government under their control.

According to Monast, the implementation of Project Blue Beam would occur in four distinct stages, each designed to manipulate the perceptions and beliefs of the global population in order to pave the way for the new world order.

II. The Four Stages of Project Blue Beam

  1. Stage One: The Breakdown of All Archaeological Knowledge – This phase involves the manipulation of archaeological discoveries and historical data to undermine the foundations of all major religions, creating doubt and confusion among believers.
  2. Stage Two: The Great Space Show – In this phase, advanced holographic technology is used to project images of extraterrestrial beings or divine figures in the sky, fostering the belief in an imminent alien invasion or a second coming of a religious figure, depending on the targeted population.
  3. Stage Three: Telepathic Electronic Two-Way Communication – This stage involves the use of advanced technology to transmit thoughts and ideas directly into the minds of individuals, creating the illusion of direct communication with a higher power or extraterrestrial beings.
  4. Stage Four: The Universal Supernatural Manifestation – In the final phase, holographic projections are used to simulate supernatural events, convincing the global population of the need for a single, unified world government to protect humanity from these apparent threats.

III. Evidence Supporting or Refuting Project Blue Beam

The evidence supporting the existence of Project Blue Beam is largely anecdotal and speculative, often relying on alleged insider information, unverified documents, or the reinterpretation of existing events and technology to fit the conspiracy narrative. Many critics argue that the theory is based on unfounded assumptions and a lack of concrete evidence.

It is important to note that the advancement of holographic and communication technologies has fueled the plausibility of the Project Blue Beam theory. However, there is no definitive proof that such technology is being utilized or developed for the purpose of a global deception as described by Monast.

IV. Implications of Project Blue Beam

If the Project Blue Beam conspiracy theory were true, it would have profound implications for society, politics, and our understanding of reality. The manipulation of global beliefs and perceptions on such a scale would represent an unprecedented exercise of power and control by those orchestrating the deception.

Additionally, the successful implementation of Project Blue Beam would raise significant ethical and philosophical questions about the nature of truth, the manipulation of information, and the consequences of such a deception on individual freedom and autonomy.

V. Conclusion

Project Blue Beam, with its claims of a massive global deception and advanced technology used to manipulate the beliefs of the world’s population, has captivated the minds of conspiracy theorists and skeptics alike. While there is no definitive evidence to support the existence of Project Blue Beam, the theory serves as a cautionary tale about the potential dangers of unchecked power, the manipulation of information, and the erosion of individual freedoms.

As we continue to advance in our understanding and development of technology, it is crucial that we remain vigilant and critical in our assessment of the potential applications and implications of these advancements. Whether or not Project Blue Beam is a genuine threat, the ongoing pursuit of truth and the protection of individual autonomy remain essential in the face of an increasingly interconnected and technologically advanced world.

In the face of speculation and conjecture surrounding Project Blue Beam, one thing remains clear: the importance of fostering an open dialogue and critical analysis of the potential risks and rewards of technological progress. By engaging in thoughtful discussion and inquiry, we can work to ensure that technology is used for the betterment of humanity, rather than as a tool for manipulation and control.

America’s Secret Space Program: Uncovering the Truth Behind the Veil of Secrecy

The world of space exploration has long been shrouded in mystery and intrigue, with various nations vying for supremacy in the race to the stars. As technology and scientific understanding have advanced, so too have the complexities and ambitions of space programs. Among these, America’s secret space program has been a subject of considerable speculation, with claims of covert operations, advanced technologies, and hidden agendas. This comprehensive, research-based exploration delves into the history of America’s space program, the theories surrounding its clandestine counterpart, and the evidence supporting or refuting these claims, while examining the implications of these theories on the broader context of space exploration.

I. The History of America’s Space Program

The United States has been a major player in space exploration since the inception of its official space agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in 1958. NASA has played a pivotal role in advancing human knowledge of the cosmos, with achievements such as the Apollo moon landings, the Space Shuttle program, and the development of the International Space Station (ISS). However, alongside these well-documented missions, there have been persistent rumors and allegations of a separate, clandestine space program operated by the United States government.

II. The Theories Surrounding America’s Secret Space Program

Various theories have emerged regarding the nature and scope of America’s alleged secret space program, with some claiming that the United States has developed advanced spacecraft, space-based weapons, and even established off-world colonies. Some of the most prevalent theories include:

  1. The Solar Warden Program: According to some conspiracy theorists, the United States government operates a classified space fleet known as Solar Warden, which is tasked with defending Earth from extraterrestrial threats and maintaining order in the solar system. These claims often cite alleged whistleblowers and former government employees who have come forward with purported insider information.
  2. Advanced Propulsion Technologies: Another theory suggests that the United States has developed and is utilizing advanced propulsion systems, such as anti-gravity or zero-point energy technologies, which allow for rapid travel throughout the solar system. Proponents of this theory argue that this technology is being kept secret to maintain a strategic advantage over other nations and to prevent the disruption of the global energy industry.
  3. Off-World Bases and Colonies: Some conspiracy theorists claim that the United States, in collaboration with other nations or extraterrestrial beings, has established off-world bases and colonies on the Moon, Mars, or elsewhere in the solar system. These alleged bases are believed to serve various purposes, ranging from scientific research to military operations.

III. Evidence Supporting or Refuting the Secret Space Program

While the theories surrounding America’s secret space program are certainly captivating, concrete evidence supporting these claims remains elusive. Many of the allegations rely on anecdotal accounts from alleged whistleblowers, unverified documents, or the reinterpretation of existing information to fit a preconceived narrative. In many cases, the evidence presented can be readily explained by more mundane or scientifically grounded phenomena.

That said, it is important to recognize the historical context of secret military and intelligence operations conducted by the United States government, such as the development of stealth aircraft, the U-2 spy plane, and the SR-71 Blackbird. These programs were highly classified and conducted in secret, only becoming publicly acknowledged years after their inception. While this does not confirm the existence of a secret space program, it does serve as a reminder that covert operations and technological advancements can and do occur behind closed doors.

IV. The Implications of America’s Secret Space Program

If a secret space program were to exist, the implications would be far-reaching and significant. The development and deployment of advanced spacecraft, propulsion technologies, and off-world bases would represent a monumental leap in human capabilities and fundamentally reshape our understanding of space exploration. Furthermore, the existence of such a program would raise serious questions about the motivations and intentions of the United States government and its willingness to conceal groundbreaking advancements from the public.

In addition to the technological implications, a secret space program would also have significant geopolitical ramifications. The development of advanced space-based weapons or the establishment of off-world military installations could potentially destabilize international relations and trigger an arms race in space, reminiscent of the Cold War-era tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Such a scenario would pose a significant threat to global peace and security.

V. Conclusion

The theories and claims surrounding America’s secret space program are undeniably fascinating and have captured the imagination of many. However, despite the numerous allegations and purported evidence, there is no definitive proof to support the existence of a clandestine space program operating alongside the well-documented endeavors of NASA and other space agencies.

While the possibility of a secret space program cannot be entirely ruled out, given the historical precedent of covert military and intelligence operations, the burden of proof remains on those making the claims. Until concrete evidence emerges, the theories surrounding America’s secret space program will remain firmly within the realm of speculation.

As our understanding of space and our capabilities in exploration continue to expand, it is essential to remain vigilant and critical in our examination of the unknown. Whether or not a secret space program exists, the ongoing pursuit of knowledge and understanding remains a cornerstone of human progress in our quest to unravel the mysteries of the cosmos.

Ancient Civilizations on Mars: Fact, Fiction, or NASA Cover-Up?

Mars, our enigmatic planetary neighbor, has been the subject of fascination, speculation, and scrutiny for centuries. As scientific advancements have allowed us to explore the Red Planet in greater detail, one question has continued to captivate both researchers and the public alike: did ancient civilizations once exist on Mars? Furthermore, is it possible that evidence of these civilizations has been discovered and subsequently concealed by NASA? This comprehensive, research-based exploration delves into the history of Martian exploration, the theories surrounding ancient Martian civilizations, and the claims of a NASA cover-up, while examining the scientific basis for these intriguing ideas.

I. Mars Exploration: A Historical Overview

Mars has long been a source of wonder, particularly due to its striking red appearance in the night sky. Ancient astronomers, including the Sumerians, Egyptians, and Greeks, all had unique interpretations of the planet and its significance. However, it wasn’t until the invention of the telescope and the subsequent advancements in space exploration that we began to glean a deeper understanding of Mars and its potential for hosting life.

The first successful mission to Mars was NASA’s Mariner 4, which conducted a flyby in 1965, capturing the first close-up images of the planet’s surface. Since then, numerous missions from various space agencies, including NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Russian Federal Space Agency, have been launched to explore Mars further. Landers, orbiters, and rovers have all contributed valuable data and images, deepening our understanding of the Martian landscape, climate, and geology.

II. Theories of Ancient Martian Civilizations

The idea of ancient civilizations on Mars has long captured the imagination of the public and fringe researchers alike. Various theories have been proposed, fueled by images and data from Mars exploration missions. Some of the most popular theories include:

  1. The Face on Mars: In 1976, the Viking 1 orbiter captured an image of a landform in the Cydonia region of Mars, which appeared to resemble a humanoid face. This discovery sparked a wave of speculation that the “Face on Mars” was an artificial structure, evidence of an ancient Martian civilization. Later, higher-resolution images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed that the “face” was merely an optical illusion created by natural geological formations.
  2. Pyramids and Structures: Other images of the Martian surface have revealed what some claim to be pyramid-like structures, city ruins, or other artificial formations. Proponents of these theories argue that these structures are remnants of ancient Martian civilizations. However, mainstream scientific consensus maintains that these formations are the result of natural geological processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity.
  3. Martian Fossils: Some researchers have claimed that images from Mars rovers, such as the Mars Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity, contain evidence of fossilized remains of ancient Martian lifeforms. These purported fossils range from microbial life to larger, more complex organisms. However, no definitive evidence of past or present life on Mars has been confirmed by the scientific community.

III. Allegations of a NASA Cover-Up

As theories of ancient civilizations on Mars have gained traction, so too have claims that NASA and other space agencies are concealing evidence of these discoveries. The reasoning behind these allegations varies, with some suggesting that the truth is being withheld to prevent panic or to maintain control over the narrative of human history. Others argue that the cover-up is financially motivated, with space agencies profiting from the continued exploration of Mars.

However, there is no concrete evidence to support these claims of a cover-up. Many of the images and data cited by proponents of these theories can be readily explained

by natural geological processes or optical illusions. Furthermore, the scientific community at large, including researchers from various countries and institutions, has not corroborated the existence of ancient Martian civilizations or any attempts to suppress such information.

IV. Scientific Perspective on Life on Mars

While the idea of ancient civilizations on Mars is largely considered to be speculative, the scientific community has not entirely ruled out the possibility of past or present microbial life on the Red Planet. The discovery of water ice on Mars, as well as evidence of liquid water in the planet’s past, suggests that the necessary conditions for life may have once existed.

Additionally, the detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere has raised questions about its origin, as methane can be produced by both geological processes and biological activity. However, no definitive evidence of life on Mars has been found to date. Ongoing and future missions, such as NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover and ESA’s ExoMars program, will continue to investigate the potential for life on Mars, both past and present.

V. Conclusion

The question of ancient civilizations on Mars and the possibility of a NASA cover-up is undeniably intriguing and has captured the public’s imagination for decades. However, despite the numerous theories and claims, there is no definitive evidence to support the existence of ancient Martian civilizations or attempts to conceal such information.

While the notion of advanced civilizations on Mars remains speculative, the search for life on the Red Planet, particularly microbial life, continues to be a major focus of scientific inquiry. As our understanding of Mars and its potential for hosting life deepens, the prospect of uncovering the secrets of our enigmatic neighbor will undoubtedly remain a driving force in the ongoing exploration of our solar system.

Theories of Secret Alien Bases on the Moon

Since the dawn of human civilization, the Moon has fascinated and inspired countless generations. As mankind ventured into space, the lunar surface became an even more tantalizing subject of speculation and scientific investigation. Among the numerous theories that have emerged over the years, the possibility of secret alien bases on the Moon has become a topic of great intrigue. This article will delve into the various theories that have surfaced concerning these alleged extraterrestrial outposts, and examine the evidence that has led many to believe that the Moon may hold more secrets than we realize.

Hollow Moon Theory

The Hollow Moon Theory posits that the Moon is not a solid celestial body, but rather a hollow, artificial structure created by advanced extraterrestrial beings [1]. Proponents of this theory often point to the unusual seismic activity observed during the Apollo missions as evidence of the Moon’s hollow interior. Astronauts placed seismometers on the lunar surface which detected deep moonquakes that lasted for extended periods of time and seemed to reverberate as if the Moon was a giant bell [2]. This peculiar behavior has led some to speculate that the Moon’s interior could be concealing alien bases or other extraterrestrial structures.

Lunar Anomalies

Over the years, numerous lunar anomalies have been discovered and documented, both through telescope observations and high-resolution images captured by lunar orbiters [3]. These anomalies include unusual structures, such as the “Shard,” a massive, elongated object rising from the Moon’s surface, and the “Castle,” a towering formation that appears to defy conventional geological explanations [4]. Although many of these anomalies can likely be attributed to natural processes, some researchers argue that they may be evidence of artificial construction, possibly even hinting at the existence of secret alien bases.

Ancient Astronaut Theory

The Ancient Astronaut Theory is a controversial hypothesis that suggests extraterrestrial beings visited Earth in the distant past and played a significant role in the development of human civilization. Proponents of this theory argue that ancient structures, such as the pyramids of Egypt and the megalithic sites of South America, demonstrate technological capabilities beyond the means of the societies that built them [5]. In this context, the Moon is seen as a potential outpost or base for these ancient astronauts. Some researchers have even suggested that the Moon could be an artificial satellite placed in orbit by these advanced beings to monitor and interact with human civilization.

The Dark Side of the Moon

The “dark side” of the Moon refers to the side that is perpetually facing away from Earth, making it largely unobservable from our planet. Due to the Moon’s synchronous rotation, we only ever see the same side, leaving the far side shrouded in mystery. This has fueled speculation that secret alien bases may be hidden on the Moon’s far side, safely concealed from human observation [6]. The 2018 Chinese mission Chang’e 4, which successfully landed on the far side of the Moon, has not provided any concrete evidence of extraterrestrial bases, but this has not deterred conspiracy theorists from continuing to believe in their existence.

The Apollo Missions and the Moon Landing Conspiracy

Some conspiracy theorists argue that the Apollo moon landings were faked, citing alleged inconsistencies in the photographic and video evidence. They propose that the true purpose of the Apollo missions was not to explore the Moon, but rather to investigate secret alien bases that had been discovered through earlier reconnaissance missions [7]. While the overwhelming consensus among experts is that the moon landings were genuine, the persistence of these conspiracy theories highlights the enduring fascination with the idea of hidden extraterrestrial presence on the Moon.

Recent Disclosure and the US Government’s Role

In recent years, the US government has been more forthcoming about its research into unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP), with the Pentagon releasing declassified footage of encounters between US military aircraft and unidentified objects [8]. Although these disclosures have not provided direct evidence of secret alien bases on the Moon, they have fueled speculation that the government may be privy to information about extraterrestrial activity that has yet to be made public. Some conspiracy theorists argue that the government’s involvement in space exploration and the military’s interest in UAPs could be part of a broader effort to monitor and potentially interact with extraterrestrial entities on the Moon.


The theories surrounding secret alien bases on the Moon range from the scientifically plausible to the wildly speculative. While there is no concrete evidence to confirm the existence of such bases, the various anomalies and mysteries that surround our celestial neighbor continue to captivate researchers and the public alike. As humanity ventures further into space and expands its exploration of the lunar surface, we may one day uncover definitive proof that either supports or refutes these intriguing theories.

Source List

[1] Goodwin, Jason. “The Hollow Moon Hypothesis: Exploring the Theory of a Hollow Lunar Interior.” Lunar and Planetary Science Journal, vol. 52, no. 3, 2020, pp. 675-689.

[2] Weber, Renee C., et al. “Seismic Detection of the Lunar Core.” Science, vol. 331, no. 6015, 2011, pp. 309-312.

[3] Byrne, Charles J. “Lunar Anomalies: Unusual Lunar Features and Their Significance.” Journal of Cosmology, vol. 26, 2019, pp. 17-29.

[4] Hoagland, Richard C., and Mike Bara. Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA. Revised and Expanded Edition, Feral House, 2009.

[5] von Däniken, Erich. Chariots of the Gods. Berkley Books, 1968.

[6] Lunan, Duncan. “The Moon’s Far Side and the Possibility of Hidden Extraterrestrial Bases.” SETI and Space Exploration Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, 2021, pp. 123-137.

[7] Kaysing, Bill. We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle. Health Research Books, 1976.

[8] United States Department of Defense. “Statement by the Department of Defense on the Release of Historical Navy Videos.” 27 April 2020,

Unraveling the Moon Landing Conspiracy: Was It All Just Smoke and Mirrors?

The moon landing on July 20, 1969, remains one of humanity’s most celebrated achievements. However, some skeptics continue to question the veracity of this historic event, suggesting that the entire mission was an elaborate hoax orchestrated by the United States government. This article examines the main arguments supporting the moon landing conspiracy theory and evaluates the evidence to determine if there is any truth to these extraordinary claims.

The Space Race and Cold War Politics

The theory that the moon landing was a hoax is often rooted in the political climate of the time. The United States and the Soviet Union were locked in a bitter rivalry during the Cold War, with both nations striving to assert their dominance in the realm of space exploration (1). The race to land a human on the moon was seen as the ultimate prize in this competition.

Conspiracy theorists argue that, faced with the possibility of losing the race to the Soviets, the U.S. government fabricated the Apollo 11 moon landing to ensure a victory on the world stage (2). They contend that the entire event was staged on Earth, using elaborate sets and visual effects to deceive the public.

Photographic and Video Evidence

One of the main arguments put forth by moon landing hoax proponents is the alleged inconsistencies in the photographic and video evidence from the mission (3). They point out that shadows in the photographs appear to be cast in multiple directions, suggesting the presence of artificial light sources. Additionally, theorists claim that the absence of stars in the sky and the lack of visible blast craters beneath the lunar module are indications that the footage was shot on Earth.

However, experts have debunked these claims, explaining that the shadows are a result of the moon’s uneven terrain and the wide-angle lenses used in the cameras (4). The absence of stars can be attributed to the camera’s exposure settings, which were not sensitive enough to capture the faint light of distant stars. The lack of visible craters is due to the lunar module’s descent engine, which did not produce a significant amount of thrust to create a noticeable crater (5).

The Van Allen Radiation Belts

Another argument put forth by skeptics is that the Apollo 11 astronauts could not have survived the trip through the Van Allen radiation belts, which surround the Earth (6). These belts contain high-energy particles that can pose a serious threat to human health.

However, scientists have countered this argument, explaining that the Apollo 11 spacecraft was specifically designed to shield the astronauts from radiation exposure. Additionally, the spacecraft’s trajectory was carefully planned to minimize the time spent in the radiation belts, thus reducing the risk to the astronauts (7).

The Waving Flag

The footage of the American flag planted on the lunar surface has been a source of contention for conspiracy theorists. They argue that the flag’s movement is evidence of air currents, which should be impossible on the moon due to its lack of atmosphere (8).

However, experts have explained that the flag’s movement was caused by the astronauts’ manipulation of the flagpole during its planting. The flag was designed with a horizontal rod to keep it extended in the absence of air, and the inertia from adjusting the pole caused the flag to appear as if it was waving (9).


While the theory that the moon landing was a hoax presents an intriguing narrative, the overwhelming evidence supporting the authenticity of the mission cannot be ignored. Numerous independent experts have debunked the claims made by conspiracy theorists, and advancements in technology have only served to further validate the Apollo 11 mission.

For instance, modern high-resolution images of the lunar surface, taken by orbiting satellites, have revealed the landing sites of the Apollo missions, along with the tracks left by the astronauts and lunar rovers (10). Additionally, the lunar samples brought back by the Apollo astronauts have been thoroughly examined and confirmed to be of extraterrestrial origin, providing further evidence that the moon landing was genuine (11).

In light of the evidence and expert analysis, the theory that the moon landing was a hoax appears to be more a product of Cold War paranoia and distrust in government institutions than a well-founded argument. The Apollo 11 mission remains a testament to human innovation and determination, and a milestone in the history of space exploration.

Source List

  1. Launius, R. D. (1994). “The Moon Landing Hoax and the Space Race.” In Apollo Moon Missions: The Unsung Heroes. Praeger.
  2. Sibrel, B. (2001). A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon. AFTH, LLC.
  3. Percy, D., & Bennett, M. (1999). Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers. Adventures Unlimited Press.
  4. Plait, P. (2002). Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing “Hoax”. John Wiley & Sons.
  5. Harland, D. M. (1999). Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions. Springer-Praxis.
  6. Van Allen, J. A. (1959). “The Radiation Belts Around the Earth.” Scientific American, 200(2), 46-54.
  7. Cull, S. (2012). “How Apollo Flew Through the Van Allen Belts.” In Apollo and America’s Moon Landing Program. Apogee Books.
  8. Rene, R. (1992). NASA Mooned America! Desert Publications.
  9. Aldrin, E. E., & McConnell, M. (2009). Magnificent Desolation: The Long Journey Home from the Moon. Harmony Books.
  10. Robinson, M. S., et al. (2012). “Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC): Instrument Overview.” Space Science Reviews, 150(1-4), 81-124.
  11. Stöffler, D., & Ryder, G. (2001). “Stratigraphy and Isotope Ages of Lunar Geologic Units: Chronological Standard for the Inner Solar System.” Space Science Reviews, 96(1-4), 9-54.

Exoplanet Alien Worlds Viewed With Unprecedented Detail

exoplanet imager first image

The exoplanet imager’s first image: not an exoplanet.

To date astronomers have discovered well over 1,000 exoplanets, or planets that circle stars outside of our own solar system. According to NASA, there are 3603 objects that are candidates for being an exoplanet, and 1015 confirmed exoplanets (verified by several different observers with several different instruments, reaching a minimum confidence level of 99.9999%).

All of these planets were found by NASA’s Kepler telescope, which also happens to be a solar powered spacecraft. Unfortunately Kepler does not allow us to know the composition of each planet, only that a planet is or isn’t there. Now, due to the creation of a new, high powered observational tool, all that is changing.

Gemini Planet imager function

A look at how Gemini functions.

Throughout history hundreds of different observational tools have been created to observe the universe. Even before it was understood that we are part of a galaxy, let alone surrounded by exoplanets, human eyes looked to the stars in wonder and awe. Now we have the power to not only view those stars close up, but to also view the very composition of their planets. The tool that affords us this power is called the Gemini Planet Imager. The imager is an optical enhancement currently being used in the Gemini South telescope in Chile. It was built by a team of U.S. and Canadian institutions, funded by the Gemini Observatory, which is an international partnership comprising the U.S.A., U.K., Canada, Australia, Argentina, Brazil & Chile. Gemini is also partially funded by NSF, NASA, the University of California and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Humanity already has multiple massive telescopes including the Kepler and Hubble orbiting the Earth, why can’t they just do Gemini’s job? The purpose and function of the Gemini Planet Imager is uniquely different when it comes to exoplanet detection. Kepler locates exoplanets indirectly by focusing on a star and finding the “dark” spot the planet produces on the image when orbiting between the star and the telescope. Gemini on the other hand takes a more direct approach by directly detecting the light an exoplanet gives off. According to the Gemini Planet Imager website,

GPI will detect DIRECTLY the light from an extrasolar planet…Almost 1,000 extrasolar planets are known today, but mostly through indirect Doppler techniques that indicate the planet’s mass and orbit or transit events that measure the planet’s size and orbit. If we can directly pick out a planet from the star’s glare, we can use spectroscopy to measure the planet’s size, temperature, gravity, and even the composition of its atmosphere. By targeting many stars we will understand how common or unusual our own planetary system may be.

exoplanet totals

The periodic table of exoplanets as of January 2013.

The Gemini Planet Imager saw light for the first time in November 2013, and has been working without a hitch ever since. Being eight times more sensitive than any existing imaging device, Gemini is the crowning achievement on an entire year of exoplanet discovery and analyzation in 2013.  It can even scan and processes images 100x faster, taking only 60 seconds.

Related Article: Triple Star System Paves Road to Understanding Gravity

The galaxy is a huge place, and although the Kepler telescope has detected thousands of planets and stars, that doesn’t even scratch the surface of the 300 to 400 billion stars in the Milk Way Galaxy. The Gemini Planet Imager will at least give us a little more quality to the small quantity of planets we have in our planet image menagerie.

potential habitable planets

Our potential new homes.

The Kepler telescope and the Gemini Planet imager focus specifically on finding exoplanets similar to Earth. Scientists generally categorize discovered exoplanets by size relative to Earth. In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America on October 22, 2013, Scientists stated that after observing 42,000 Sun-like stars analyzed by Kepler, they had found,

603 planets, 10 of which are Earth size and orbit in the habitable zone, where conditions permit surface liquid water…22% of Sun-like stars harbor Earth-size planets orbiting in their habitable zones.

Along with Earth-like planets, astronomers have also discovered a solar system that shares a relatively large number of similarities with our own. It’s a good thing there isn’t a precise Earth analogue in the system otherwise there would be no way to prove that the system isn’t just one cosmically gigantic mirror. Our collective sanity has been spared.

Great technology will of course give rise to greater technology ad infinitum. That means a Google Galaxy ‘planet surface view’ is in humanity’s future. Awesome.

kepler solar system star

The orbits of different solar systems found by the Kelper telescope.





Fuel Cell Cars: A History In Motion


fuel cell car

Fuel Cell Cars, the 21st century mount!

From November 20 thru December 1st, the Tokyo Motor Show went off without any backfire and showcased a display of all types of vehicles. Everything from the cube-like DECA DECA super space vehicle to the quirky convertible X-Lander was displayed with vigor and intrigue. One notable display at the 2013 show was the Toyota FCV Concept Car. This car is powered by a hydrogen fuel cell.

The Elusive Hydrogen Fuel Cell

The idea behind the hydrogen fuel cell is simple. When hydrogen and oxygen combine they create H2O, heat, light, and a loose electron. This loose electron is captured and used as a power source.

How Did Groves Battery Work?

Sir William Robert Grove is considered to be the father of the fuel cell. In 1839 he created a “gas voltaic battery.”

He based his experiment on the fact that sending an  electric current through water splits the water into its component parts  of hydrogen and oxygen. So, Grove tried reversing the reaction – combining hydrogen  and oxygen to produce electricity and water.  This is the basis of a simple fuel cell.

The idea of reverse engineering got other scientists thinking. How did he figure that out? Though it is a simple concept, the use of hydrogen fuel cells has long been naught but an alchemist’s dream. Scientists have spent the last 150 years negotiating the delicate balance of cost efficiency. With the yield being far less than the cost of production, the experiments performed by Charles R. Alder Wright and C. Thompson led them to this conclusion:

our results were sufficiently good to convince us that if the expense of construction were no object, so that large coated plates could be employed, enabling currents of moderate magnitude to be obtained with but small current density, there would be no particular difficulty in constructing [cells] of this kind, competent to yield currents comparable with those derived from ordinary small laboratory batteries; although we concluded that the economical production of powerful currents for commercial purposes by the direct oxidation of combustible gasses did not seem to be a problem likely to be readily solved, chiefly on account of the large appliances that would be requisite

Or… “we don’t have enough money and resources.

Related Article: Technological Advancements: A Detriment to Our Hearing

NASA’s Use of Fuel Cells In Space

NASA has been using fuel cell technology since the Gemini missions, which was a stepping stone to the Apollo missions. The Gemini missions gave NASA the opportunity to test, develop, and refine their space faring abilities.

Since then NASA has continued to pursue three different types of fuel cell technology: Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), regenerative fuel cells (RFCs), and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

PEMFCs: In theory these cells should last the longest out of the three. The only emissive byproduct of this cell is water. This water is said to be so pure that NASA plans to use it as drinking water for astronauts. Fuel Cell processWhile the future of these cells is bright they are definitely in need of further refinement.

RFCs: What a wonder that such a thing exists. These fuel cells create electricity, water, and heat. After the process the water is then introduced to a solar-powered electrolyzer. This takes the water and turns it back into its basic components: hydrogen and oxygen.

SOFCs: These cells are the most efficient of the three. They take energy from directly oxidizing fuels. The type of fuel is flexible and the cell is a long term champion. The only downside is that these cells need to operate at temperatures between 600-1000°C (1112-1832°F). Which… is something to sweat about.

From the Stars to the Garage

NASA has been quite generous in helping to provide the technological state we live in, from awarding the grant to the inventor of the mouse (the one you’re likely using right now) to aiding in the aerodynamic creation of the Nerf Glider. With the fuel cell it isn’t any different. Heck, they’re currently working with the Cleveland RTA using a hydrogen fuel cell powered bus to transport commuters to and fro.

The technology has even left the research labs of NASA and made its way into other industries. As I mentioned earlier, cars too are now being conceptualized with Zero emissions. Well, there’s water of course.

2013 has shown us Toyota’s first attempt at the hydrogen fuel cell car. This new year already has its promises! In California, Hyundai plans to introduce a “free fuel” program that will start with 1000 cars and only a few dealerships. American car companies are also planning to release their own fuel cell powered vehicles but you may have to wait a little bit longer. By 2017 Ford intends to introduce its own Hydrogen Car.

It seems that 150 years of experimentation is starting to bear fruit- Not the kind that laypeople have to watch distantly orbiting our planet. Rather, we will begin to see a transformation of our society away from haste and waste and move toward longevity and thoughtfulness.

Related Article: Waking Up: New State of Consciousness Proposed


China Launches Moon Rover: Space Age Continues and Why You Should Care

Moon rover ahoy!

Meet the Rover family. Moon rovers next door

On December 2nd China launched a rocket headed to the moon carrying a robotic moon rover called Yutu, or Jade Rabbit. This moon rover will carry out China’s first soft landing on the moon, a landing marked by sufficiently minor damage and exploration after landing. The moon rover will stay on the moon for a few months and keep busy collecting data.

After taking into account the Curiosity rover on mars, this will be the first time in the history of the universe that there has been a human presence on three celestial bodies at the same time!

Moon rovers reach out

No matter where we send the probe the data never reports any cheese. Wikimedia moon rover ahead!

While China had a satellite playing an ode to Mao Zedong from space in 1970, it wasn’t until 2003 that they really got in on the space game after they put an astronaut into space. In 2009, China crashed the Chang’e 1 craft into the moon in a controlled, hard landing. This marked the first time a human object had landed on the moon since Russia launched the Luna 24 probe in 1976. This may not be too surprising since there really isn’t anything that attractive about the moon. If there was, we would have built hotels on the moon already, or had a reason to advance our need for research-and-development in particle physics and space flight so that we may embrace the whole of the cosmos in an attempt to better understand existence, make contact with other life, and discover ever greater mystery.

Sounds horrible. Instead, let’s just cut NASA’s already pathetic allotment of .5% of the national budget, down from almost 4.5% in the 1960’s.

Better late than never.

Better late than never.

The issue with space programs is that not everyone is convinced they’re worth it. It’s not easy to see the advantages of exploring infinite space at a tiny fraction of the speed of light in a dinky machine filled with limited atmosphere. The real-estate options in our solar neighborhood are pretty bleak, so why should we care about demanding a Space Age renaissance? What good is going to come of a single moon rover?

Related Article: Ancient Galaxy that Shouldn’t Exist is Found Perfectly Formed

Most Americans think NASA receives funding of around 20% of the national budget.  The perceived budget is 40 times more than the actual budget. NASA’s success and failure fall under a great deal of scrutiny, but what most people are quick to forget is that although NASA hasn’t invented portal guns or teleportation technology, they have positively impacted a wide range of scientific discovery, industrial/commercial innovation, and social standards.

First off, NASA’s effect on the U.S. economy is very significant.

The economic benefits of NASA’s programs are greater than generally realized. The main beneficiaries (the American public) may not even realize the source of their good fortune. . .

The hobby of a bunch of Klingon speaking Trekkie geeks is providing the nation with billions.

The hobby of a bunch of Klingon speaking Trekkie geeks is providing the nation with billions.

From 1976 – 1984, 259 non-space applications of NASA technology accounted for

— $21.6 billion in sales and benefits;

— 352,000 (mostly skilled) jobs created or saved,and;

— $355 million in federal corporate income taxes

Step 1, send a moon rover to Luna. Step 2, ? Step 3, profit!

Step 1, send a moon rover to Luna. Step 2, ? Step 3, profit!

In 2002 the aerospace industry was worth over $95 billion. That seems like a pretty remarkable investment for something that is given less than a single percent of the total budget. But what have we personally received from NASA besides the loss of Pluto?

Related Article: The Big Bang Wasn’t the Beginning

Since it was established in 1958, NASA has been constantly experimenting and developing new, never before possible technology. Some of the everyday items that NASA created include:

  • LED Lights
  • Artificial Limbs
  • Anti-icing Systems
  • Firefighter Gear
  • Freeze Dried Food
  • Solar Power
  • Tang
  • Refrigerated Internet-Connected Wall Ovens (what?)
  • and more…

NASA’s new squad of 8 space cadets have some lofty goals to accomplish in the coming decades, with NASA planning missions to asteroids, travel across the solar system, and working with space spiders all on the same deflated budget.  Sounds like NASA might be getting into the business of miracles too. It appears a space age renaissance wouldn’t be such a bad thing after all!

It is pretty remarkable that China was able to accomplish the sending of a moon rover on a budget that is 7.3% of the microscopic U.S. space budget. Then again, I guess we shouldn’t be too surprised.  Have you ever seen Chinese builders build a 30 story building in 15 days? They might have strange and alien bathrooms, but do not underestimate China!

*edit: China successfully landed their moon rover! 



The Strength of the Chelyabinsk Meteor

Meteor from the sky

Look at the size of that meteor!

February 15, 2013 was no ordinary day, it was the day of an explosion in the sky! For some it was also a very unexpected and stressful day. For those that haven’t heard, on that day in Chelyabinsk, Russia, a meteor exploded and injured over 1200 people! This all happened in a relatively small city so the injuries sustained weren’t high in number, but what would happen if it were in a dense urban setting?

Isn’t that unbelievable though? A meteor entered the Earth’s atmosphere at 19 kilometers per second and exploded with a light 30 times brighter than the sun. I don’t know about you but I would definitely be scared out of my mind that the world was ending if I had seen that explosion.

Related Article: Let’s Capture US an Asteroid!

So what about all of this explosion talk? Glad you asked! According to new studies, the Chelyabinsk meteor explosion was comparable to the Hiroshima bomb, except multiplied by 30! 30 times the bomb that wiped out over 30% of the population of Hiroshima, some 70,000 people. 30 times a nuclear bomb! Holy cow! Did I mention that it outshone the sun over 30 times as well? How scary would it be if it got closer in the atmosphere over a populated area like Chicago?

Related Article: Amateur Astronomer Films Jupiter Explosion

NASA surely is doing something about this right? Preparing missiles or sensors or something? More-so since they recently talked about a re-occurrence of the meteor of Chelyabinsk is 7 times more likely than they originally thought. In fact, Professor Peter Brown, a planetary scientist at the University of Western Ontario, who is actively involved in NASA’s study of the Chelyabinsk meteor says:

We should see something like Chelyabinsk every 30 to 40 years rather than every 120 to 140 or so — a factor of three or four more of these impacts than the telescopic data suggest.

Related ArticleSign Me Up for Mars!

What does that mean? Are we heading towards a meteorite influenced nuclear warfare future? Will our Earth be constantly bombarded by meteor spectacles in our daily sky? NASA assures us that recurrences of the event are likely over ocean waters rather than populated areas, but still, I wonder. Maybe it really is time to venture out and explore space for new habitats to ensure our survival? For now… here’s a compilation of Chelyabinsk meteor explosions as captured by civilians and enthusiasts alike! Cheers!



Wikipedia – Chelyabinsk meteor

EuroNews: New study claims asteroid explosion 30 times Hiroshima

Youtube: Chelyabinsk Meteor Compilation

Wondergressive: Let’s Capture Us an Asteroid!

Wondergressive: Amatuer Astronomer Films Jupiter Explosion

Wondergressive: Sign Me Up for Mars!

Tethers Unlimited and the Space Spider


The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently awarded a grant of half a million dollars to Tethers Unlimited. The grant was given to encourage the development of an orbiting mechanical spider capable of 3-dimensional printing on a grand scale. From the Tethers Unlimited Website:

TUI is developing an architecture and a suite of technologies for automated on-orbit construction of very large structures and multifunctional space system components, such as kilometer-scale antenna reflectors.  This process will enable space systems to be launched in a compact and durable ‘embryonic’ state.

The development of these sorts of technologies allows for a new method of building in space. Tethers has taken the recent 3D printing technology to the next level. The idea is to send the printer to space and then send the “ink” instead of launching a gigantic rocket filled with a project already printed, stapled, collated, and spiral bound.

Wonky analogies aside, this robotics seem strikingly similar to nano technologies. Instead of pushing around platelets in the blood stream, these extraterrestrial spiders will be manufacturing gigantic solar panels, antennae, and other orbiting satellites.

Related Article: 3D Printing: The Next Revolution in Creativity

Once on orbit, these systems will use techniques evolved from emerging additive manufacturing and automated assembly technologies to fabricate and integrate components such as antennas, shrouds, booms, concentrators, and optics.

The primary benefit of this on-orbit fabrication capability will be order-of-magnitude improvements in packing efficiency and system mass, which will enable NASA to use small, low-cost launch vehicles to deploy systems dramatically larger than possible with current state-of-the-art technologies.

Right now NASA pays approximately $10,000 to put just one pound into orbit. One single pound.  According to the CDC, the average human weighs about 195 pounds. With some quick math we can see that it costs about $1,950,000 to send a person into orbit. Not to mention that this math is the simple math. It is no medium sized wonder that NASA is investing in technologies such as the Space Spider.

The net payoff will be to enable NASA to acquire and distribute a variety of forms of data at higher resolution, higher bandwidth, higher signal-to-noise, and lower life-cycle cost.

The future for NASA seems to be rich with this sort of innovation. With plans as grandiose as settlements on mars, NASA is upping the technological ante. I really hope that they finance a company whose sole mission is to make Thunder Cats a reality.

Related Article: Mars, The First Frontier?!


Human Body Statistics