Native Americans are Originally From Europe

native american

The native American “We are part of humanity’s final migration.” http://www.ilhawaii.net/

A recent study performed by geneticists at the University of Copenhagen has confirmed that Native Americans are originally from Europe, at least in part. Up to 38% of Native American ancestry can be traced to Europe and western Asia, collectively known as Eurasia.

Palaeogeneticist Eske Willerslev at the University of Copenhagen, along with his team, confirmed this by sequencing the genome of DNA found in the 24,000-year-old remains of a young boy from the Siberian village of Mal’ta. This is coincidentally the oldest known modern human DNA ever found.

Related Article: Ancient Human DNA Found: Old World Similar to Lord of the Rings

The study shows us that modern humans living in Europe spread much further East than anthropologists had initially realized and lived in Siberia during the last ice age.

Haplogroup_R_(Y-DNA)

While scientists have known for years that Native Americans are directly related to east Asians, the European genes are a breakthrough discovery. The whole story behind the origins of Native Americans is in fact still a mystery.  According to the research team,

The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to.

Related Article: Modern Languages May Share Common, Ancient Ancestor

So, the idea that Native Americans are just slightly different east Asians is just an assumption. What we do know is that 24,000 year old Europeans had a hardcore Asian fetish.  According to Eske Willerslev,

At some point in the past, a branch of east Asians and a branch of western Eurasians met each other and had sex a lot.

Looks like the ideal location for committing genocide! http://www.nativevillage.org/

Looks like the ideal location for committing genocide! http://www.nativevillage.org/

Native Americans are a true meeting of East and West: the evolutionary offspring of the mingling of Europeans and Asians. This type of widespread, inter-racial sex is a repeat of humanity’s ancient past, one filled with inter-sub-species sex between neanderthals, denisovans, homo sapiens, and other early humans.

Related Article: The “Friends of the Indian” and How They Treated Their Friends

European features had previously been recognized in modern day humans living in the Americas. For example, some ancient Native American skulls look very different from modern day Native Americans. Mitochondrial DNA that shares a lineage with Europeans was also found in Native Americans. This type of evidence however, was always attributed to post-Columbian encounters with Europeans. We now know that is simply not the case.

If we view history in terms of the last few thousand years, the post-columbian invasion of the America’s can be viewed as totally alien invaders advancing on a land filled with an utterly strange group of people.  If we broaden that view to include the last few hundred thousand years though, we see a different picture: A group of people invading its own ancestral family; warring family trees sharing the same ancient roots.

 

Sources:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12736.html#ref10

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasia

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/science/two-surprises-in-dna-of-boy-found-buried-in-siberia.html?ref=nicholaswade&_r=1&

http://www.cell.com/current-biology/retrieve/pii/S0960982209020661

http://www.cell.com/AJHG/retrieve/pii/S0002929707612932

Ancient Human DNA Found: Old World Similar to Lord of the Rings

ancient humans

Humanity is just starting to get interesting . http://humanorigins.si.edu/ ancient humans

Scientists have discovered a femur that contains 400,000 year old DNA from an as yet undiscovered ancestor of modern day humanity.  It was discovered at Sima de los Huesos, or “the pit of bones,” in Spain. This same pit has offered 28 other samples of ancient humans. The femur contains DNA that is similar to that of Denisovan, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals, and a being which shares a common ancestor with you and I.

The only other evidence of the elusive Denisovan, the ancient human sub species, is DNA from a finger bone and tooth dated to 41,00 years ago, which was found in Siberia, 4,000 miles away. How did this type of DNA get all the way to Spain, and which hominid does the ancient human DNA actually belong to?

Related Article: Women Who Give Birth to Men Have Male DNA in Brain for Life

 

Humans mated and spread like rabbits all over the globe.  http://humanorigins.si.edu/

Humans mated and spread like rabbits all over the globe.

Scientists are able to answer far more questions regarding our origins and early migration patterns out of Africa due to the constant improvements in DNA reading technology and genomic sequencing. According to Juan Luis Arsuaga, a paleoanthropologist at Universidad Complutense de Madrid and a co-author of the paper,

This would not have been possible even a year ago.

One of the reasons this study is so profound is due to how far back it allows us to peer into our past.  In 1997, scientists made a breakthrough by sequencing 40,000 year old Neanderthal DNA. In 2006 the record became 100,000 years. Only 7 years later the record has quadrupled to nearly 400,000 years. That is incredible progress.

Of course, more progress means more questions, and it seems that the more accurate our view of the past becomes, the stranger history turns out to be. Our ancient human predecessors were not so similar to us as imagined.

Related Article: Watching Evolution Occur

What we know about modern humanity is that it left Africa in 3 migrations, with each migration separated by two hundred thousand years or more. This theory as a whole is dubbed the “out of Africa hypothesis,” and is generally accepted by the anthropological community.  The theory is based on a near endless amount of archaeological studies, genetic, and anatomical studies, and works like this:

  • Around 4 – 8 million years ago (still debated)  humans, chimpanzees and bonobos began evolving as separate lineages from a common ancestor. This common ancestor shares an older common ancestor with gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons.
  • This separated lineage evolved into  homo habilis 2.3 million years ago. This is the first early human species to use tools, and walk on the ground on only two legs, instead of living in trees and depending on all 4 limbs for transportation.

    That is one weird looking tree!

    That is one weird looking tree!

  • Around 1 million years later, ancient humans evolved into homo erectus (or maybe habilis and erectus lived side by side?) Homo erectus had double the cranial size of its ancestors and was the first human species to walk fully upright. It was also the first species to leave the nest: Africa. Homo erectus left Africa between 1.3 and 1.8 million years ago, and spread through Africa, Asia and Europe. This was the first major migration out of Africa.
  • The second major migration involved an evolved form of homo erectus that had remained in Africa called homo heidelbergensis. This migration occured around 600,000 years ago.  Homo heidelbergensis is the direct ancestor of neanderthals, denisovan, and homo sapiens.
  • Around 200,000 years ago humanity, still in Africa, had evolved into homo sapiens. Homo sapiens left Africa in the third major migration around 125,000 years ago and spread all around the world.  Homo sapiens evolved into homo sapien idaltu, now extinct, and homo sapien sapien, commonly referred to as cro magnon. Homo sapien sapien is the only species of human alive today; congratulations, we made it.

This is a very simple, linear explanation, and the truth is that nothing in life, especially when it concerns ancient humanity, is ever that simple. Studies like the first one we discussed have proven that our past is far less linear and extremely complex, leaving anthropologists in constant debate.

Related Article: DNA Ancestry Checking Is as Cheap as $99

The above explanation doesn’t take into account the countless as yet unnamed ancient human sub species that DNA tests have discovered, nor does it take into account other sub species that existed between the several hundred thousand year gaps between the major evolutionary stepping stones. Examples include homo antecessor , homo ergaster, or homo floresiensis, which scientists have dubbed ‘hobbits’ due to their incredibly small stature yet fully developed brains.

erectussapiensbones

Human Mark II and Mark V http://donsmaps.com/

As a clearer picture of our past is revealed, the name ‘hobbit’ becomes increasingly more apt.  According to Mark Thomas, an evolutionary geneticist at University College London,

we’re looking at a Lord of the Rings-type world … there were many hominid populations.

Dozens, maybe even hundreds of undiscovered ancient human sup species may have lived side by side, some with a culture and anatomy similar to modern day humans, and others markedly strange. So far, evidence shows that at least 5 different sub species of ancient humans spread throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia, and lived on the planet at the same time. Scientists even found denisovan, neanderthal, and modern human bones all in the same cave.

Related Article:Deep Storage Project

Probably the most interesting part of our history is that all of the different ancient human sub species interbred like British royalty, with mystery human sub species spicing up the sex life of our great human ancestors. This is why the DNA of many modern humans is actually a mix,

All modern humans whose ancestry originates outside of Africa owe about 2% of their genome to Neanderthals. Certain populations living in Oceania, such as Papua New Guineans and Australian Aboriginals, share about 4% of their DNA with Denisovan.

These sub species of ancient human were so close that there is 500,000 year old neanderthal and denisovan viruses in modern human DNA.  

Skulls of: 1. Gorilla 2. Australopithecus 3. Homo erectus 4. Neanderthal (La Chapelle aux Saints) 5. Steinheim Skull (Archaic Homo sapiens) 6. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

Skulls of: 1. Gorilla 2. Australopithecus 3. Homo erectus 4. Neanderthal (La Chapelle aux Saints) 5. Steinheim Skull (Archaic Homo sapiens) 6. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

Ancient human history is far more complex, and incidentally, contains far more inter-sub-species-sex than anthroplogists and historians ever gave it credit for.  The recent research discussed above represents the very tip of the iceberg regarding the incredible potential that improved DNA testing has. It’s only a matter of time before we reveal the full truth of our origins and ancient human history.

Related Article: Bonobo Makes Tools Similar to Early Humans

Hopefully we will find out all of the answers one day, but for now, Matthias Meyer, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany thinks that,

We’ve basically generated a big question mark.

 

 

Ancient humans were more awesome than any of us imagined.

 

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denisova_hominin

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12788.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336068

http://humanorigins.si.edu/resources/whats-hot/mystery-pit-bones-atapuerca-spain

http://www.cell.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867400803104?cc=y

http://www.cell.com/current-biology/retrieve/pii/S0960982206015594

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/science/at-400000-years-oldest-human-dna-yet-found-raises-new-mysteries.html?_r=2&

https://wondergressive.com/news/morality-in-animals/

http://www.paleodiversitas.org/PDF/135.pdf

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/3/248.full.pdf+html

http://books.google.com/books?id=AmvJ1XtnIQoC&pg=PA90#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/09/science/08cnd-fossil.html?ref=science&_r=0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_habilis

http://www.himalayanlanguages.org/files/hazarika/Manjil%20Hazarika%20EAA.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12802332

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/human-origins/early-human-family/homo-heidelbergensis/index.html

http://www.theworld.org/2012/08/scientists-map-an-extinct-denisovan-girls-genome/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_antecessor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_ergaster

https://wondergressive.com/news/bonobo-makes-tools-similar-to-early-humans/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336068

http://www.nature.com/news/mystery-humans-spiced-up-ancients-sex-lives-1.14196

http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/neanderthal-viruses-dating-back-500000-years-discovered-modern-human

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/science/at-400000-years-oldest-human-dna-yet-found-raises-new-mysteries.html?_r=2&