The History and Reasoning behind Daylight Saving

Daylight Saving Time (DST) is a practice that has been observed in many countries for over a century. It involves setting the clock forward by one hour during the summer months and then setting it back by one hour during the winter months. The purpose of DST is to make better use of natural daylight by extending the amount of daylight that is available during the evening hours, thereby reducing the need for artificial lighting and saving energy.

The origins of DST can be traced back to the late 19th century when a New Zealand entomologist named George Vernon Hudson proposed the idea of advancing the clock by two hours during the summer months. However, it was not until World War I that DST was first implemented on a large scale as a wartime measure to conserve fuel. Germany was the first country to introduce DST in 1916, and it was soon adopted by other European countries and the United States.

The rationale behind DST was straightforward: by moving the clock forward by one hour during the summer months, people could enjoy more daylight during the evening hours, which would allow them to engage in more leisure activities and reduce their reliance on artificial lighting. In addition, the practice was seen as a way to save energy by reducing the demand for artificial lighting, particularly in the evening when electricity usage typically peaks.

However, the implementation of DST has not always been smooth. In the United States, for example, the practice was first adopted on a trial basis in 1918 but was later repealed due to public opposition. It was reintroduced during World War II but was once again abandoned after the war. It was not until 1966 that the Uniform Time Act established a standardized system of DST across the United States.

Today, DST is observed in over 70 countries around the world, although not all countries use the same system. Some countries, such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, observe DST from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November, while others, such as most of Europe, observe it from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Some countries, such as China and Japan, do not observe DST at all.

The debate over the effectiveness of DST continues to this day. Proponents argue that DST helps to save energy and reduce carbon emissions by reducing the need for artificial lighting, particularly during the evening hours. In addition, they argue that DST promotes public health by encouraging outdoor activities and reducing the risk of traffic accidents during the evening rush hour.

Opponents of DST, on the other hand, argue that the practice is disruptive and can have negative effects on public health and safety. They point to studies that suggest that the disruption of the body’s natural circadian rhythms caused by DST can lead to sleep deprivation and other health problems. In addition, opponents argue that the practice can have a negative impact on certain industries, such as agriculture, which rely on natural light and may be disrupted by changes in the clock.

Despite these debates, the practice of DST remains popular in many countries around the world. However, there have been recent calls to reconsider the practice, particularly in light of new research that suggests that the energy savings associated with DST may be less significant than previously thought.

In conclusion, DST is a practice that has been observed in many countries for over a century. Its origins can be traced back to the late 19th century, but it was not until World War I that it was first implemented on a large scale as a wartime measure to conserve fuel. The rationale behind DST was to make better use of natural daylight by extending the amount of daylight that is available during the evening hours, thereby reducing the need for artificial lighting and saving energy. The implementation of DST has not always been smooth, and the debate over its effectiveness continues to this day. However, DST remains a popular practice in many countries, and its impact on energy usage, public health, and safety continues to be studied and debated.


  1. “The History of Daylight Saving Time.” Time and Date.
  2. “Daylight Saving Time: Its History and Why We Use It.” National Geographic.
  3. “Daylight Saving Time: Pros and Cons.” Live Science.
  4. “Daylight Saving Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment.” The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 92, no. 4, 2010, pp. 945–964. JSTOR,
  5. “Daylight Saving Time and Traffic Accidents.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 22, 2011, pp. 2185–2187. doi:10.1056/nejmc1100693.

The Future of Flying Cars: Research, Possibilities, and Challenges

Flying cars have long been a staple of science fiction, but recent advancements in technology and research have brought us closer than ever before to realizing this dream. With the advent of electric and hybrid propulsion systems, advanced materials, and autonomous driving technologies, flying cars are becoming a reality. In this research paper, we will explore the current state of flying car research, the possibilities for the future, and the challenges that must be overcome to make flying cars a part of everyday life.

History of Flying Cars

The concept of a flying car is not new. In fact, the idea has been around for over a century. In 1917, Glenn Curtiss, an American aviation pioneer, built a car with wings that could be attached for flight. However, the idea never really took off due to technological limitations and safety concerns (1).

In the 1950s and 60s, flying cars were a popular topic in science fiction, with shows like The Jetsons featuring flying cars as a standard mode of transportation. However, it wasn’t until the 21st century that advancements in technology made the idea of a flying car a real possibility.

Current State of Flying Car Research

Several companies are currently working on developing flying cars, including Uber, Airbus, and Terrafugia. The vehicles being developed vary in design, but all share the goal of creating a vehicle that can take off and land vertically and transition from flight to road use seamlessly (2).

The technology being developed for flying cars includes electric and hybrid propulsion systems, lightweight materials, and autonomous driving technologies. One of the biggest challenges in developing flying cars is creating a vehicle that is safe, reliable, and easy to operate (3).

The Possibilities for the Future

The future of flying cars is exciting, with potential benefits that include reduced traffic congestion, faster and more efficient travel, and increased accessibility to remote areas. Flying cars could also revolutionize emergency response and disaster relief efforts, as they would be able to reach remote areas quickly and easily (4).

In addition to personal use, flying cars could also be used for commercial purposes, such as transportation of goods and services. It is also possible that flying cars could eventually become autonomous, allowing passengers to sit back and relax during their commute (5).

Challenges to Overcome

Despite the many possibilities of flying cars, there are still many challenges that must be overcome before they become a reality. One of the biggest challenges is safety. Flying cars would have to meet the same safety standards as traditional airplanes, which could be difficult to achieve.

Another challenge is infrastructure. Flying cars would require specialized landing and takeoff areas, as well as regulations governing their use. Additionally, flying cars would have to be accessible and affordable to the general public, which could pose challenges in terms of cost and availability (6).


In conclusion, flying cars are no longer just a figment of science fiction. Advances in technology have made it possible to create vehicles that can transition from road to air and back again. While there are still many challenges to overcome, the potential benefits of flying cars are numerous. They could revolutionize transportation and emergency response, making the world a safer and more connected place.


  1. “The History of Flying Cars.” Popular Mechanics, 22 May 2017,
  2. “The Race to Create Flying Cars is On. Here’s Who is Winning.” CNN Business, 7 June 2021,
  3. “The Future of Transportation: Flying Cars?” Forbes, 1 Mar. 2019,
  4. “The Case for Flying Cars.” WIRED, 15 Nov. 2018,
  5. “The Future of Flying Cars: Less Science Fiction, More Reality?” The Guardian, 19 Sept. 2021,

The Power of Binaural Beats: Exploring Effects and Research on this Fascinating Auditory Stimulation

Binaural beats are a form of auditory stimulation that can alter brainwave frequencies and states of consciousness. They have been studied for decades and are believed to have many potential benefits, such as reducing anxiety, improving focus, and aiding in meditation. However, there is still much debate about the efficacy and safety of binaural beats. This paper will explore the effects and research on binaural beats and provide insights into the current state of knowledge on this topic.

What are Binaural Beats?

Binaural beats are a form of auditory illusion that occurs when two slightly different frequencies are played into each ear simultaneously. The brain perceives the difference between the two frequencies as a single tone, known as the binaural beat. For example, if a 400 Hz tone is played in one ear and a 410 Hz tone is played in the other ear, the brain will perceive a 10 Hz binaural beat. This process is called entrainment, and it is believed to synchronize brainwave activity in both hemispheres of the brain.

Effects of Binaural Beats

There is still much debate about the efficacy and safety of binaural beats, but many people believe that they can have a variety of effects on the mind and body. One of the most commonly reported effects of binaural beats is relaxation. Research has shown that listening to binaural beats can reduce anxiety and stress levels, leading to a greater sense of calm and relaxation. [1]

Another potential benefit of binaural beats is improved focus and concentration. Studies have shown that listening to binaural beats in the alpha and theta frequency ranges can increase focus and improve cognitive function. [2]

Binaural beats are also commonly used for meditation and spiritual practices. They are believed to help users achieve deeper states of meditation and connect with their inner selves. Some people even claim that binaural beats can induce lucid dreaming or astral projection, although there is little scientific evidence to support these claims.

Research on Binaural Beats

There have been many studies conducted on the effects of binaural beats, but the results have been mixed. Some studies have shown significant improvements in cognitive function and relaxation levels, while others have found no significant effects. The variability in results is likely due to differences in study design and participant characteristics.

One study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine found that listening to binaural beats for just five minutes can increase alpha brainwave activity, leading to improved mood and reduced anxiety levels. [3] Another study published in the International Journal of Psychophysiology found that binaural beats in the theta frequency range can improve creativity and problem-solving skills. [4]

However, not all studies have found significant effects. A study published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience found no significant differences in mood or anxiety levels after participants listened to binaural beats. [5] Another study published in the Journal of Neuroscience Methods found no significant effects on cognitive function or mood after participants listened to binaural beats. [6]

Safety of Binaural Beats

There is still much debate about the safety of binaural beats, and some experts warn against using them excessively or without professional guidance. Some people have reported negative side effects from listening to binaural beats, such as headaches, dizziness, and nausea. However, these side effects are relatively rare and are generally not considered dangerous.

It is also important to note that binaural beats should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or therapy. While they may have some therapeutic benefits, they should not be relied upon as the sole form of treatment for any medical condition.


Binaural beats are a fascinating and potentially beneficial form of auditory stimulation. While there is still much debate about their efficacy and safety, the research conducted so far indicates that they may have some positive effects on the mind and body. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential benefits of binaural beats.

It is also important to note that the effects of binaural beats can vary depending on individual factors such as age, gender, and cognitive ability. Therefore, it is important to approach binaural beats with caution and to seek professional guidance if you have any concerns about their use.

Overall, binaural beats are a promising area of research that could have many potential benefits for individuals seeking to improve their cognitive function, reduce stress and anxiety, or enhance their meditation practice. As our understanding of the brain and its functions continues to evolve, binaural beats may become an increasingly important tool for optimizing brain function and achieving optimal mental health.


[1] Deyo, M., et al. (2009). A pilot study of binaural auditory beats in the treatment of anxiety. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(1), 55-60.

[2] Reedijk, S.A., et al. (2013). Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 1-9.

[3] Garcia-Argibay, M., et al. (2019). Short-term effects of binaural beats on EEG power, functional connectivity, cognition, gait and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neural Transmission, 126(1), 1-14.

[4] Colzato, L.S., et al. (2011). Theta burst stimulation of the left hemisphere enhances verbal creativity. Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(2), 116-121.

[5] Lane, J.D., et al. (1998). EEG asymmetry and the hemispheric activation model: Implications for training the aging brain. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 53B(4), 251-260.

[6] Wahbeh, H., et al. (2007). Binaural beat technology in humans: A pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(1), 25-32.

“Here’s My Rape!”: The Reality of Rape

Most men have no idea how terrifying it can be to be grabbed by a stranger who then refuses to let go. Or how fast a heart can beat when a man hollering at you from his car decides to pull over and get out of his vehicle. In the twilight hours, most men will not discreetly but desperately grapple with the contents of their purse until they find their keys, then hold fast to them in their fists—just in case an oncoming confrontation requires them to have some small advantage.

To be clear: this is not a feminist rant.

Recent events in my personal life gave me pause to think of the different ways men and women live out their typical nights and days. It was a rather mind-boggling exercise and I can’t help but think, at its conclusion, that there should be no place for these differences in an advanced, first world society like ours.

Chicago comedian Ever Mainard puts a humorous spin on the problem, but her words are unfortunately spot on:

The problem is that every woman has that one moment when you think—here’s my rape! This is it! OK, it’s (checks watch) 11:47pm, how old am I? 25? Alright, here’s my rape! It’s like we wait for it, like, what took you so long?

(Above quoted bit starts at 2:10)

I have absolutely had such moments in the past, and I’d hazard a guess that too many other women have, too. Over a late dinner with a male friend, the subject was brought up. He was genuinely surprised to hear this angle of the story. That same evening, another male associate related how he never understood what it must feel like for an attractive woman every day until he was in Chicago’s Boystown neighborhood. (Boystown is home to a large portion of Chicago’s LGBTQA population, particularly the men).

In her fantastic and thought-provoking article, “A Letter to the Guy Who Harassed Me Outside the Bar,” Emily Heist Moss accuses poignantly:

You probably don’t even remember Friday night, and if you do, your memory is the sound of your friends laughing.


But that is not all that happened. (Emphasis, mine).

In a world that prides itself on the fact that its women are doctors and lawyers, judges and single-parent households, construction workers and business owners, I truly believe this is a hurdle we should be over. This double standard should be offensive to men, as well, since it says that they are such crazed animals that they can’t control themselves. It is one of those mindsets that contribute to the propagation of rape culture: teaching women not to get raped as though it’s an inevitability instead of teaching men not to commit rape. It isn’t right that for women:

“You can’t have people look at you and listen to you at the same time.” —Gina

Barreca,Professor of English Literature & Feminist Theory, University of Connecticut

For additional reading regarding the rights rapists retain as parents, click here

Landmines Suck: How a New Invention is Changing the Danger of Landmines

landmines kickstarter


So, landmines are heart-breaking life destroyers and apparently the Earth has got more than a few lying around. Not to mention it’s pretty darn difficult to get rid of landmines safely. So what are we doing about that? Well I wasn’t doing much until just recently when I discovered my monetary support could go to this guy,  Massoud Hassani. He’s working on this gadget to help safely eradicate those life destroying contraptions.  The best news? You can help him out if you so feel inclined.


Check out his kickstarter Mine Kafon Madness for more information


Check out his TED talk