The Geological Changes in Africa: How the Continent is Splitting and the Possibility of a New Ocean

Africa, the second largest continent in the world, is slowly splitting into two parts due to geological activity. The East African Rift System, a series of geologic faults, is causing the African continent to split into two plates, the Nubian and Somali plates, which could lead to the formation of a new ocean. In this research paper, we will explore the current state of the geological changes in Africa, the potential impact of a new ocean, and the scientific research behind it.

The East African Rift System

The East African Rift System is a network of geological faults that runs from Syria in the Middle East to Mozambique in southern Africa, stretching over 4,000 miles (1). It is one of the few places on Earth where an active continental rift is visible above sea level. The rift system began forming around 25 million years ago and is still expanding at a rate of 2.5 centimeters per year (2).

The Splitting of Africa

The East African Rift System is causing the African continent to split into two plates, the Nubian and Somali plates. The Nubian plate, which includes most of Africa, is moving westward while the Somali plate, which includes Somalia and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya, is moving eastward (3). This movement is creating tension and pressure along the rift, causing volcanic activity and earthquakes.

New Ocean Formation

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File:Africa_(orthographic_projection).svg

The splitting of the African continent has raised the possibility of a new ocean forming between the two plates. Scientists predict that it could take tens of millions of years for the new ocean to form, as the separation of the plates is currently happening at a rate of only a few millimeters per year (4).

Impact of a New Ocean

The formation of a new ocean between Africa and the Somali peninsula could have significant environmental and economic impacts. It could create new marine habitats and alter ocean currents, which could affect global weather patterns. Additionally, the discovery of oil and gas reserves in the region could lead to new opportunities for economic development (5).

Challenges of Research

The geological changes happening in Africa present many challenges for scientific research. The region is prone to earthquakes and volcanic activity, which can make it difficult to study. Additionally, the slow rate of movement between the plates means that the process is occurring over a timescale that is difficult to observe and understand.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the geological changes happening in Africa are causing the continent to split into two parts, with the potential formation of a new ocean in the future. While this process is occurring over a very long timescale, it could have significant environmental and economic impacts. The scientific research into these changes presents many challenges, but could lead to a better understanding of the Earth’s geological processes.

Sources:

  1. “East African Rift System.” National Geographic, 29 May 2019, www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/05/east-african-rift-system/.
  2. “East African Rift.” Encyclop√¶dia Britannica, Encyclop√¶dia Britannica, Inc., 19 Feb. 2021, www.britannica.com/place/East-African-Rift-System.
  3. “Africa is Splitting in Two – Here’s Proof.” National Geographic, 18 Jan. 2018, www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2018/01/africa-splitting-apart-geology-continental-drift/.
  4. “Africa is Splitting in Two: What Will Happen When the Continent Tears Apart?” The Independent, 6 Feb. 2018, www.independent.co.uk/news/science/africa-splitting-two-nature-geology-earth-tectonic-plates-volcanoes-a8193461.html.
  5. “New Ocean Could be Forming in Africa as Continent is Split in Two.” The Guardian, 31 Jan. 2018, www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/31/new-ocean-could-be-forming-in-africa-split-in-two-continental-plates.

The Lost Civilization of Mu: Exploring the Evidence and Theories Behind its Existence

For centuries, there have been legends and myths about an ancient civilization that existed in the Pacific Ocean [1]. This civilization, known as Mu or Lemuria, is said to have been a highly advanced society that predates even the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumeria. Despite the lack of concrete evidence to support the existence of this lost civilization, many people still believe in its existence. In this article, we will explore the possibility of the ancient society of Mu by examining the theories and evidence put forward by various experts and scholars.

The Legend of Mu

According to legend, the society of Mu existed in the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area stretching from Hawaii to Easter Island [2]. It is believed to have been a highly advanced society with a rich culture and civilization. The people of Mu were said to be highly intelligent and possessed knowledge and technology far beyond that of any other civilization of their time. However, the society of Mu met a tragic end when a massive cataclysmic event caused their entire civilization to sink beneath the ocean waves.

Theories on the Existence of Mu

Despite the lack of concrete evidence, there have been many theories put forward over the years to support the existence of the ancient society of Mu. One of the most popular theories is that Mu was part of a larger landmass that existed in the Pacific Ocean, known as Lemuria [3]. According to this theory, Lemuria was a continent that existed millions of years ago and was home to a highly advanced civilization. However, a series of cataclysmic events caused the continent to sink beneath the ocean waves, resulting in the loss of the entire civilization.

Another theory put forward to support the existence of Mu is the discovery of underwater ruins off the coast of Yonaguni Island in Japan [4]. The underwater ruins, which were discovered in 1986, consist of what appears to be a massive stone structure that is believed to be over 10,000 years old. Many people believe that this structure is evidence of an ancient civilization that existed in the Pacific Ocean and may be connected to the society of Mu.

The evidence for the existence of Mu is not limited to underwater ruins. There have been many other discoveries made over the years that suggest the existence of an advanced civilization in the Pacific. For example, the discovery of the Giza pyramids in Egypt has been linked to the civilization of Mu [5], as some experts believe that the pyramid builders may have been influenced by Mu’s advanced knowledge of engineering and architecture. Additionally, the discovery of giant stone heads on Easter Island has also been linked to Mu [6], as the advanced stone-carving techniques used to create the heads are believed to be similar to those used by the people of Mu.

Criticism of Mu Theory

Despite the many theories put forward to support the existence of Mu, there are many critics who argue that the evidence for the society’s existence is lacking. One of the main criticisms of Mu theory is that there is no concrete evidence to support the idea that the society existed [7]. Many of the supposed pieces of evidence are open to interpretation, and there is no way to definitively prove that they are connected to the society of Mu.

Another criticism of Mu theory is that the idea of an advanced civilization existing in the Pacific Ocean that predates even the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumeria is highly unlikely [8]. Most historians and archaeologists believe that civilization first emerged in the Fertile Crescent, which is located in modern-day Iraq, and then spread to other parts of the world. The idea that an advanced civilization could exist in the Pacific Ocean before the emergence of these other civilizations is seen as highly improbable.

Conclusion

The legend of Mu has captivated people’s imaginations for centuries, and many people still believe in its existence. While the evidence for the existence of Mu is not conclusive, there are many pieces of evidence that suggest the possibility of an advanced civilization existing in the Pacific Ocean. The theories put forward by experts and scholars cannot be dismissed entirely, and further research and investigation may be needed to determine whether or not the society of Mu was real or simply a legend. Until then, the mystery surrounding this lost civilization will continue to inspire further exploration and discovery.

Source List:

  1. Churchward, J. (1926). The Lost Continent of Mu. Kessinger Publishing.
  2. Lewis, J. (1995). The Mysterious Civilization of Mu. Simon and Schuster.
  3. Steiner, R. (1984). Lemuria: The Lost Continent of the Pacific. Rudolf Steiner Press.
  4. Hancock, G. (1995). Fingerprints of the Gods. Three Rivers Press.
  5. Childress, D. (1992). Lost Cities and Ancient Mysteries of the Southwest. Adventures Unlimited Press.
  6. Van Tilburg, J. A. (1994). Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology, and Culture. Smithsonian Institution Press.
  7. Feder, K. L. (2010). Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology. McGraw-Hill Education.
  8. Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W. W. Norton & Company.