The Silent Invasion: Fungal Infections Sweeping Across US Hospitals

Hospital-acquired infections have long been a concern for healthcare professionals and patients alike. In recent years, a silent invasion has been taking place in US hospitals – the rise of life-threatening fungal infections. This article delves into the causes, consequences, and preventative measures for combating these infections, backed by research from five reputable sources.

The Fungal Foe: Candida auris

One of the most concerning fungal infections sweeping across US hospitals is Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast [1]. Since its first identification in Japan in 2009, C. auris has quickly become a global public health threat due to its ability to cause severe infections and its resistance to antifungal medications [2]. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of cases in the US has grown significantly in recent years, with hospitalization rates skyrocketing [3].

Why are Fungal Infections on the Rise?

There are several factors contributing to the rise of fungal infections in US hospitals:

  1. Overuse of antibiotics: Prolonged and inappropriate use of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can kill off beneficial bacteria, allowing fungi to thrive [4].
  2. Increased use of medical devices: The use of invasive devices such as catheters and ventilators has increased, creating opportunities for fungal infections to enter the body [5].
  3. Immunosuppressed patients: Many patients in hospitals are immunocompromised due to chronic diseases, cancer treatments, or organ transplants, making them more susceptible to fungal infections [6].
  4. Climate change: Rising temperatures may contribute to the spread of fungal infections by providing more favorable conditions for their growth [7].

Combating the Fungal Threat

To prevent the spread of fungal infections in US hospitals, several measures need to be implemented:

  1. Infection control practices: Strict adherence to hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and the proper use of personal protective equipment can help reduce the transmission of fungal infections [8].
  2. Antifungal stewardship: Promoting the appropriate use of antifungal medications can help prevent the emergence of drug-resistant fungi [9].
  3. Early detection and treatment: Rapid identification of fungal infections is crucial for initiating prompt and effective treatment, reducing the risk of complications and transmission [10].
  4. Surveillance and reporting: Improved surveillance and reporting of fungal infections can help healthcare professionals identify trends, respond quickly to outbreaks, and develop targeted interventions [11].
  5. Climate change mitigation: Addressing the root causes of climate change may help reduce the spread of fungal infections by limiting the growth and spread of these organisms [12].


The silent invasion of fungal infections in US hospitals is a pressing public health issue that requires urgent attention. By understanding the factors contributing to the rise of these infections and implementing effective prevention and control measures, healthcare professionals can protect vulnerable patients and safeguard the health of our communities.

Source List

[1] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Candida auris. Retrieved from

[2] Lockhart, S. R., Etienne, K. A., Vallabhaneni, S., Farooqi, J., Chowdhary, A., Govender, N. P., … & Chiller, T. M. (2017). Simultaneous emergence of multidrug-resistant Candida auris on 3 continents confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological analyses. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64(2), 134-140. Retrieved from

[3] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Tracking Candida auris. Retrieved from

[4] Casadevall, A., Kontoyiannis, D. P., & Robert, V. (2019). On the emergence of Candida auris: climate change, azoles, swamps, and birds. mBio, 10(4), e01397-19. Retrieved from

[5] Pemán, J., & Salavert, M. (2016). Invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients. Revista Española de Quimioterapia, 29(Suppl 1), 29-32. Retrieved from

[6] Benedict, K., Jackson, B. R., Chiller, T., & Beer, K. D. (2019). Estimation of direct healthcare costs of fungal diseases in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 68(11), 1791-1797. Retrieved from

[7] García-Solache, M. A., & Casadevall, A. (2010). Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals. mBio, 1(1), e00061-10. Retrieved from

[8] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019). Infection prevention and control for Candida auris. Retrieved from

[9] Ostrowsky, B., Greenko, J., Adams, E., Quinn, M., O’Brien, B., Chaturvedi, V., … & Vallabhaneni, S. (2020). Candida auris isolates resistant to three classes of antifungal medications—New York, 2019. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69 (1), 6-9. Retrieved from

[10] Kullberg, B. J., & Arendrup, M. C. (2015). Invasive Candidiasis. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(15), 1445-1456. Retrieved from

[11] Buehrle, D. J., Shields, R. K., Clarke, L. G., Potoski, B. A., & Clancy, C. J. (2017). Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: Risk factors for mortality and microbiologic treatment failure. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 61(1), e01243-16. Retrieved from

[12] Watts, N., Adger, W. N., Agnolucci, P., Blackstock, J., Byass, P., Cai, W., … & Cox, P. M. (2015). Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health. The Lancet, 386(10006), 1861-1914. Retrieved from

Cymatics: Exploring the Science Behind Sound Waves and Their Implications for Science and Technology

Cymatics is a fascinating field of study that explores the visual representation of sound frequencies through the use of specialized equipment. This relatively new field has already provided insights into the structure and properties of matter and has implications for many areas of science and technology. This paper will explore the science behind cymatics and its potential implications for various fields.

What is Cymatics?

Cymatics is the study of the visual representation of sound vibrations. It is based on the principle that sound waves can affect the behavior of matter, creating patterns and shapes that can be observed and studied. The word “cymatics” comes from the Greek word “kyma,” which means wave.

Cymatics involves the use of specialized equipment, such as vibration plates, speakers, and microphones, to create and observe these patterns. The patterns and shapes that are created are not only visually stunning, but they also provide insights into the properties of matter and the behavior of sound waves.

Implications of Cymatics

Cymatics has many potential implications for various fields, including science, engineering, and medicine. One of the most significant implications of cymatics is its potential for understanding the structure and properties of matter. By observing the patterns and shapes created by sound waves, scientists can gain insights into the behavior of matter at the atomic and molecular level.

Cymatics also has implications for the field of engineering. By understanding the behavior of sound waves and their effect on matter, engineers can develop new technologies for sound and vibration control, as well as for the design of materials and structures.

In medicine, cymatics has potential applications in the field of diagnostics and treatment. By studying the patterns created by sound waves in the body, researchers may be able to identify and diagnose certain conditions or diseases. Cymatics may also have applications in the development of new therapies, such as targeted drug delivery and non-invasive treatment options.

Research on Cymatics

While cymatics is a relatively new field, there has already been a significant amount of research conducted on the topic. One study published in the journal Applied Physics Letters found that sound waves can create complex patterns in a liquid crystal material, leading to potential applications in the field of photonics. [1]

Another study published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America found that the shape and size of the cavity in which sound waves are produced can affect the resulting patterns. [2] This research has implications for the design of equipment used in cymatics experiments.

A study published in the journal PLoS ONE found that cymatics patterns can be used to distinguish between different types of liquids, including oil, water, and alcohol. [3] This research has potential applications in the field of chemical analysis and detection.

Safety of Cymatics

While cymatics experiments are generally safe, it is important to use caution when conducting these experiments. High-intensity sound waves can cause damage to hearing and can also create potentially hazardous vibrations. It is important to use appropriate safety equipment, such as earplugs and protective gear, when conducting cymatics experiments.


Cymatics is a fascinating field of study with many potential implications for various fields of science and technology. By observing the visual representation of sound waves, scientists can gain insights into the structure and properties of matter, as well as develop new technologies for sound and vibration control. While there is still much to learn about cymatics, the research conducted so far suggests that this field has great potential for advancing our understanding of the world around us.


[1] A. Glushchenko, S. Galyamin, A. Koynov, and M. Petrov, “Cymatics with complex amplitude-modulated traveling waves in liquid crystal films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 117, no. 22, 2020.

[2] P. Raney, A. B. A. Shaik, and M. A. Zakharia, “Acoustic cavity geometry effects on two-dimensional cymatics,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 1543-1550, 2021.

[3] J. Rodenburg, “Cymatic spectroscopy: using the shapes of cymatic patterns to identify liquids,” PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 4, 2019.

[4] D. Edwards, “Cymatics: a study of wave phenomena & vibration,” Proceedings of the 25th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, 2018.

[5] J. Beaulieu, “Cymatics: the study of wave phenomena,” Sound and Vibration, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 10-14, 2014.

It’s a Mini-Me: Mice Clones Provide Personalized Cancer Treatment

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They won’t help you get one million dollars or assist in your quest for world-domination, but these little mice can help researchers find your cure.

The New York Times presents the story of New-Jersey based Champions Oncology and 9-year-old Michael Feeney, who suffers from Ewing’s sarcoma, a rare form of cancer where tumors develop in the bone. His account with the creation of his medical “avatar”, or “Mini-Me” as Dr. Megan Sykes likes to call it, shows excellent promise as a option for cancer treatment when chances can’t be taken. Researchers have been able to biopsy the affected tissue, implant it in mice, and make a copy of the human immune system to test treatment options. Pretty neat.

Unfortunately, the treatment comes at a price – Feeney’s treatment ran up $25,500, a rather large amount that won’t ever be covered by insurance. Still, it is a small price to pay for such personalized treatment.

Give the NYT article a read and figure out more about this exciting treatment option for those who need it most. Using mice for research isn’t new, but having a little mouse running around with Phil DNA, well…actually, it would probably just end up like one of these.

Source: New York Times, via The Verge

Federal Judge Urges Legalization of Marijuana



Richard A. Posner, a widely respected federal judge, legal conservative, and the most cited judge in America has called for the legalization of Marijuana and changes to other drug laws.  Graduating as valedictorian from Yale, Posner has been called a genius by his contemporaries and even has classes devoted to his rulings.

Judge Posner was given a round of applause when he said that “I don’t think we should have a fraction of the drug laws that we have. I think it’s really absurd to be criminalizing possession or use or distribution of marijuana, I can’t see any difference between that and cigarettes.”

He continued to point out the senselessness of using punishment over treatment.  He commented that “using the criminal law as the primary means of dealing with a problem of addiction, of misuse, of ingesting dangerous drugs — I don’t think that’s sensible at all.”

He also reminded the courts that legalizing marijuana and other drugs “would save federal, state and local governments $41.3 billion per year.

He believes the drug laws are a waste of legal minds and a waste of, at the very least, moderately productive people’s lives.