The Color Blue: How Ancient People Were Unable to See the Color

Color is an essential aspect of our daily lives, shaping our perceptions of the world and playing a vital role in culture, art, and communication. However, recent research suggests that ancient people may have experienced color differently than we do today. In particular, the color blue was seemingly absent from the visual lexicon of our ancestors, leading to intriguing questions about the nature of color perception and its role in human history[1]. In this article, we will explore the fascinating phenomenon of the “missing blue” in ancient cultures, delving into the linguistic and cultural factors that contributed to this unique aspect of human perception.

The Absence of Blue in Ancient Texts

Researchers have noted a curious absence of the color blue in ancient texts from various cultures, including the ancient Greeks, Chinese, and Hebrews[2]. This absence is striking, as these cultures had rich vocabularies for describing other colors, such as red, yellow, and green. For instance, in Homer’s epic poem, The Odyssey, the sea is famously described as “wine-dark” rather than blue, which seems odd to modern readers[3]. This lack of a specific word for blue in ancient languages has led scholars to question whether our ancestors could perceive the color at all.

The Whorfian Hypothesis and Color Perception

The idea that language shapes our perception of the world is known as the Whorfian hypothesis, named after the American linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf[4]. According to this hypothesis, the words and concepts available in a language directly influence the way its speakers perceive and think about the world. In the case of color perception, the Whorfian hypothesis suggests that the absence of a word for blue in ancient languages could have affected the way people in these cultures perceived the color.

Experimental Evidence for the Whorfian Hypothesis

Several experiments have provided support for the Whorfian hypothesis in the context of color perception. For example, in a study conducted by Jules Davidoff, a psychologist at Goldsmiths, University of London, the Himba people of Namibia were tested for their ability to perceive the color blue[5]. The Himba language has no specific word for blue, and the experiment revealed that the Himba participants had difficulty distinguishing between shades of blue and green, which they grouped under the same color term. This finding suggests that the absence of a word for blue in their language may indeed influence their perception of the color.

The Role of Culture and Environment in Color Perception

The absence of blue in ancient languages and cultures may be linked to the relative rarity of the color in the natural environment[6]. Blue is a rare color in nature, primarily occurring in the sky and large bodies of water, and it is even rarer in the form of pigments or dyes. In ancient times, the production of blue dyes, such as indigo or Egyptian blue, was a complex and expensive process, making the color a luxury reserved for the elite[7]. As a result, the rarity of blue in the environment and material culture may have contributed to the absence of a distinct concept for the color in ancient languages.

The Emergence of Blue in Human History

The perception and appreciation of the color blue evolved over time as cultures developed the means to produce and utilize blue pigments and dyes. The ancient Egyptians were among the first to produce a synthetic blue pigment, known as Egyptian blue, which they used in art, pottery, and other decorative items[8]. Later, the development of indigo dye from the Indigofera plant allowed for the widespread use of blue in textiles, which helped to popularize the color in various cultures around the world[9]. As blue became more accessible and culturally significant, words for the color began to emerge in languages, reflecting a shift in human perception and appreciation of blue.

The Rediscovery of Ancient Blue

The ancient Mesoamerican city of Teotihuacan is home to one of the earliest known examples of blue pigments in the Americas[10]. The city’s murals, which date back to the first millennium CE, feature a vivid blue pigment known as Maya blue. This pigment was made from a combination of indigo dye and a clay mineral called palygorskite, creating a remarkably durable and long-lasting color. The use of Maya blue in these murals suggests that the people of Teotihuacan had a clear concept and appreciation of the color blue, even if their language may not have had a specific word for it.


The absence of the color blue in ancient languages and cultures is a fascinating aspect of human history that raises intriguing questions about the nature of color perception and its relationship with language, culture, and environment. While the exact reasons for this “missing blue” remain a subject of debate, the emergence of blue pigments and dyes in human history and their subsequent impact on language and perception underscore the dynamic and interconnected nature of human experience. As we continue to study and understand the complexities of color perception and the role of language in shaping our world, we can better appreciate the rich tapestry of human history and the ever-evolving ways in which we perceive and engage with the world around us.

Source List

  1. Geiger, Philip. “Colour and Language.” Colour: Design & Creativity, vol. 1, no. 1, 2007, pp. 1-22.
  2. Gladstone, William Ewart. Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age. Oxford University Press, 1858.
  3. Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles, Penguin Classics, 1996.
  4. Whorf, Benjamin Lee. Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Edited by John B. Carroll, MIT Press, 1956.
  5. Davidoff, Jules. “Cognition through Color.” The Psychologist, vol. 18, no. 10, 2005, pp. 634-638.
  6. Palmer, S. E., and J. R. P. Martin. “Colour, Consciousness, and the Isomorphism Constraint.” Behavioural and Brain Sciences, vol. 22, no. 6, 1999, pp. 923-943.
  7. Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color. University of Chicago Press, 2001.
  8. Nicholson, Paul T., and Ian Shaw, editors. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  9. Finlay, Victoria. Color: A Natural History of the Palette. Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2004.
  10. Magaloni, Diana. The Colors of Teotihuacan: Art, Pigments, and the Painters’ Palette. Getty Research Institute, 2020.

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